Saturday, January 30, 2010

Roger Scruton on Beauty

Our need for beauty is not, I believe,a redundant addition to the list of human interests. It is not something that we could lack and still be fulfilled as people. It is a need arising from our metaphysical condition, as free individuals, seeking our place in a shared and objective world. We can wander through this world, alienated, resentful, full of suspicion and distrust. Or we can find our home here, coming to rest in harmony with others and with ourselves. The experience of beauty guides us along this second path: it tells us that we are at home in the world, that the world is already ordered in our perceptions as a place fit for the lives of beings like us. But beings like us become at home in the world only by paying tribute to our ‘fallen’ condition. Hence the experience of beauty also points us beyond this world, to a ‘kingdom of ends’ in which our immortal longings and our desire for perfection are finally answered. As Plato and Kant both saw, therefore, the feeling for beauty is proximate to the religious frame of mind, arising from a humble sense of harmony between the world around us and the needs within, and aspiring towards the highest unity with the transcendental...
We can, at any moment, turn away from desecration and ask ourselves instead what inspires us and what we should revere. We can set ourselves on a path along which the light of beauty shines – as we do when we listen to Mozart’s opera in the quiet of our home, so rescuing it from the grip of those who would despoil it. We can turn our attention to things we love – the woods and streams of our native country, friends and family, the ‘starry heavens above’ – and ask ourselves what they tell us about our life on earth, and how that life should be lived. And then we can look on the world of art, poetry and music and know that there is a real difference between the sacrilegious, with which we are alone and troubled, and the beautiful, with which we are in company, and at home.
fr. 'The Flight from Beauty'

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

On the Overture to Idomeneo

Overture to Idomeneo
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. (KV.366)

Idomeneo was commissioned in 1780 by Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria, and premiered at the Cuvilliés Theatre of the Munich Residenz January 29, 1781.

Instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets (autograph reads: clarin trumpets), timpani, strings (2 violins, 2 violas, cello, bass.)

The score is available via the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe.

Incipit. 1st violin.

John Eliot Gardiner conducting the English Baroque Soloists.

". . . magnificent in terms of both its design and its execution, a piece aglow from first to last with supremely tragic emotion." [1]

"The overture is the score and the drama in microcosm: grand but ominous, driven forward relentlessly as though by the surge and sweep of the sea felt both as physical presence and as the angry Neptune, a symbol of the power of malignant fate over human affairs. . . This is the pattern of the overture: authority threatened by forces beyond its control." [2]

In their observations quoted above, Abert and Cairns capture the essence of Mozart’s overture for Idomeneo. As such I hope simply to elaborate on why and how the piece, in all of its terrifying splendor, is so effective.

The overture opens with a fanfare-like tune in D major for the whole orchestra. Yet like the final piano sonata KV.576, this festive opening quickly gives way to something altogether different. Where the sonata continued into whimsy, though, Idomeneo plunges into strife. In the 7th measure the 2nd violins give way to a series of half-note tremolos as the rest of the strings yield to a menacing motive, amplified by a like response in the woodwinds:

8m. Strings.
9m. Woodwinds.

The contest is repeated two times until the 1st violins break out into a dotted crotchet figure repeated against a persistent, agitating quaver figure in the 2nd violins, one we will hear incessantly through the rest of the piece.

mm. 14-15

The descending figure in the 1st violins is played and then repeated twice, though the third time in abbreviated form with only the descending element. Shortened, as if struggling and weakening against immovable forces, it falls into a skittish crescendo of tremolo crotchets. At m. 23 we have a forte chord with the basses then thrice launching the violins into an ascending passage. The violins then give up a lovely little secondary theme, (perhaps a cousin of the theme from mm. 57-61 of the Sinfonia Concertante, KV.364, written not long before Idomeneo), which is then taken up by the basses before a descending scalar passage leads into that little theme’s full flowering. Yet this glorious blossoming is against that persistent agitating figure in the 2nd violins again. The theme is then taken up in part by the violas and basses as if in support. At bar 41 the little theme, as if deflated and exhausted, falls piano in a little chromatic descent.

The descent leads into a tremolo, out of which the 2nd violins grow into another incessant and agitating quaver figure, now dotted, and against which the first violins cautiously press on:

mm. 49-53

The little theme in the first violins continues on, sighing and meandering until at last the winds take it over and into another forte chord, after which another series of rising passages driven on and up by the timpani follow. The horn and trombone then take up our little theme from mm. 14-15 against the persistent violins, a contest which ends with a slightly innocent little descending dotted passage and little sighs before a forte unison.

We return to a variant of our first two themes, the chromatic crescendo in the strings and the woodwind reply. It is played and then repeated three times, escalating in intensity each, but descends not into a fury but a fortissimo dotted rhythm and another forte unison.

After the recapitulation of the major themes in which the woodwinds see an increased role trading the material with the strings, the movement draws down to an ominous close. At m. 137 we get a rising scale piano in the oboes and clarinets followed by a descending chromatic figure in the flute, cut off by a harsh chord. The pattern repeats, with the woodwinds a tone or semitone lower each time. Eventually just the flute repeats its little figure against the pedal points:

m. 152

Cairns is quite right to note how “the tonality is a chromatically inflected D minor; the grand D major of the opening seems far away.” Both Cairns and Abert have noted the similarity between Mozart’s closing figure here and one from the opening of Gluck’s overture to his Iphigénie en Tauride.


The quotation is both a fitting homage toward the great Gluck and his masterpiece and an appropriately somber place at which to introduce us to Illia, who we find lamenting the destruction of her Trojan home and longing for Idamante, her rescuer, who is in love Argive princess.

Idomeneo’s overture is an ingenious balance between the sinfonia and the overture, functioning both to set the mood of the opening scene and to introduce the essential theme of the whole opera, the grand tragic struggle.

[1] Abert, Hermann. W. A. Mozart. Yale University Press. New Haven and New York. 2007. (p. 613)
[2] Cairns, David. Mozart and His Operas. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 2006. (pp. 54-55)

- Sheet music to Mozart's Idomeneo via the Neue Mozart Ausgabe.
- Sheet music to Gluck's Iphigénie en Auride via the Petrucci Music Library. [PDF]

Happy Birthday Mozart

Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart was born today, the 27th of January, in the year 1756.

Posthumous painting by Barbara Krafft in 1819.

Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat. KV.364

Issac Stern (Violin), Pinchas Zukerman (Viola), and 
Zubin Mehta conducting The New York Philharmonic Orchestra. 1980 . 
Part I | Part II

Three Quotations via  
Phil. G. Goulding's "Classical Music: The 50 Greatest Composers"

"No instrumentation over-refined or over-laden; no development too complex or too slight. Everything is in perfect proportion to everything else–everything is just as it should be. . . For Mozart, besides having genius, had talent; he is one of the few composers in the world who had both, and that one reason is why he is unique."
- a 19th century music critic

"Before God, and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me, either in person or by name. He has taste, and, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition."
- Joseph Haydn

"A phenomenon like Mozart is an explicable thing."
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

"Mozart's abnormal receptiveness gave him the most complete grasp that has yet been known of that diatonic system which is the basis of European musical training. This may seem an extravagant claim, but we can explain many a Mozartian tour de force only by recognizing that the man could cary in his head not just chords, their inversions, and  few "stock" contrapuntal gambits–for these served all musicians of talent–but the discords, suspensions, and contrapuntal ornaments most of us, even to-day, have to work out, as we do a mathematical problem.

[This passage from the D major Quintet], not a particularly ambitious work, could have been written by no other composer, ancient or modern. Yet its movement opens tamely and serenely and is not disturbed by the writing itself. To hear the passage without seeing it on the score paper, is to be unaware of its astounding technical virtuosity. Thus easily does Mozart seem to have acquired the style; this is a measure of his superb taste."
- Arthur Hutchings, in his "Companion to Mozart's Piano Concertos"

An insightful discussion of Mozart and Così fan tutte with classical music critic Lloyd Schwartz from 2006, the 250th anniversary the composer's birth. (A discussion brought to my attention just today by my esteemed co-blogger Mr. Northcutt.)

Other Mozartiana here at APLV:

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Common Knowledge

The Young Cicero Reading. Vincenzo Foppa. Fresco, 1464.

 A selection from David McCullough's John Adams:
"You are now at a university where many of the greatest men have received their education," Adams reminded him. He must attend all the lectures possible, in law, medicine, chemistry, and philosophy. . . [Adams] sent a gift of several volumes of Pope, and a fine edition of a favorite Roman author, Terence, in both Latin and French. "Terence is remarkable, for good morals, good taste, and good Latin," Adams advised. "His language has simplicity and an elegance that make him proper to be accurately studied as a model." On hearing that John Quincy's course studies did not include Cicero and Demosthenes, Adams could hardly contain his indignation. John Quincy must begin upon them at once, he declared, "I absolutely insist upon it."

Latin and Greek were not all that mattered. John Quincy must neither forget nor fail to enjoy the great works of his own "mother tongue," and especially those of the poets. It was his happiness, too, that mattered.
"Read somewhat in the English poets every day. You will find them elegant, entertaining, and constructive companions through your whole life. In all the disquisitions you have heard concerning the happiness of life, has it ever been recommended to you to read poetry?"

". . .You will never be alone with a poet in your pocket. You will never have an idle hour."

"You will ever remember that all the end of study is to make you a good man and a useful citizen." [1]

What might Mr. Adams make then of the college student today, not only unable to quote Shakespeare, but unable to recognize him? Of one who reads neither the Greek nor Roman languages and cannot recall the histories of either? What of a woman, B.A. in hand, who would not know what to make of being called a Porphyria, a Portia, or a Penelope? What should we make of a graduate who knows not a whit of Keats or a phrase of Mozart?

We might say that when such a person reads, he has nothing to compare it to. When he writes, he has no model for elegance. When he hears music, he cannot say whether it is more harmonious or rhythmic than anything else. When he sees an item in the newspaper, he cannot say whether, one time ago, a similar event happened with a similar cause. What one might most generally say is that this individual lacks the ability to make an analogy, perhaps by lack of intellect but at least by lack of information. We might say that lacking any knowledge of what has happened, exists, or is possible, this individual cannot assess the significance of what he perceives. Is is rare, commonplace, ugly, beautiful, dangerous?

One of Adams' points developed above is the need for a model against which to compare both one's work and the work of others. Usually works thought to exemplify a particular idea or ideal are held up as models, ones studied, imitated, and perhaps surpassed after one's education. There exist models of every archetype, the hero, villain, genius, fool, gentleman, rake, statesman, tyrant, et cetera. What of these, though, constitutes an education? As often is the case we come now to a definitional issue: what is an education? Let us take a simple definition and see what it suggests:
  1. the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.
  2. the act or process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, as for a profession. [2]
We immediately see a bifurcation between general knowledge (1) and specialized, vocational knowledge (2). The former is what presently concerns us, though I would preface by noting vocational education should succeed that which is defined in part one, i.e. reason and judgment should precede all other study, be it of the law, medicine, farming, et cetera.

For part one (1) of our definition I first draw your attention to the concept of "developing the powers of reasoning and judgment." One recalls the tired teachers' platitude that they, "do not teach you x, y, or z, but rather teach you to think." Do they, in fact? Are students taught principles of "thinking," about concepts, precepts, first principles, causality, epistemology, dialectic, or logic? Even in philosophy courses these issues take a back seat to the more appealing ones. Who wants to grind through formal logic and Aristotle's Physics when you can read Socrates being clever in The Republic. And when one reads The Republic, what is easier to focus on: whether the state should ban bad books, or whether dialectic is itself a valuable epistemological tool?  Issues of morality and ethics are more fun to debate because everyone has an opinion of them, though to be taken seriously they must stand on epistemological and metaphysical foundations. Understanding of such principles requires time and patience. The worksis inglorious, and the rewards may seem always far off, though "it is wonderful how might may be done if we are always doing." [2] How many people can claim to have been taught these principles?

The are usually only two systematized approaches to thinking offered students, broadly referred to as "the scientific method" and the "geometric proof." Sadly, both are explained without a philosophical context and only applied within their respective realms. It is as if to say to the student, "in these two fields, (or even more specifically, "in these two classes") we have strict methodologies about making, testing and substantiating claims about the world. Outside of these fields, good luck!"

Of course the positive significance of teaching these two rational methods must not be overlooked. Consider the great technological achievements achieved in spite of a lack of overt training in "thinking". Yet one need only listen to a scientist, even a fine and successful one, even perhaps the greatest of his era, express his views on something outside his field to learn that philosophical poverty (and its dangers) may be the concomitants of this selectively-applied, strictly "scientific" reason.

To quote economist Thomas Sowell, "The problem isn't that Johnny can't think, it's that Johnny doesn't know what thinking is." Indeed. Students are not taught any systematized way of making sense of the world thus they do not in fact know what it means to "think" about something.

Before continuing we must make a few concessions regarding our statements and their implications:
  1. We must be wary in judging a culture by its art. True, art can be considered a barometer for values, yet we must consider whether art that is famous or, even art that is excellent, whether or not it necessarily reflects the values of the people of the society that produced it.
  2. We must consider a culture's best and brightest independently from the hoi polloi, not necessarily because their values differ but because the latter group lacks the resources (leisure or intellect) to appreciate some art.
Such is why I have confined this discussion to college-educated people and thus is why when we speak of "a society" we are in fact only speaking of a certain group within that society. Yet those we speak of we expect to be the best and brightest, those most capable of receiving and carrying on the best of the culture into which they were born. I also consider that which is passed on to be significant:
A liberal humanist education is underpinned by the assumption that children are rightful heirs to the legacy of the past. It takes responsibility for ensuring this inheritance is handed over to the young. It is because education gives meaning to human experience that it needs to be valued in its own right. One of the key characteristics of education is its lack of interest in an ulterior purpose. That does not mean it is uninterested in developments affecting children and society; it means that it regards the transmission of cultural and intellectual achievements of humanity to children as its defining mission. [5]

Continuing, part two (2) of our definition concerns "general knowledge." What a society considers "general knowledge" defines its ethos and character, i.e. its heroes, villains, its stories, music, literature; even sayings, euphemisms, superstitions, myths, et cetera. With our earlier observations in mind, what can we say is "common knowledge" for "educated," i.e. college-educated, people? One might say, that which is taught to everyone in college, i.e. the baseline college education; in other words, that which today constitutes a Bachelor of Arts degree or a liberal education. As far as I can tell, the meaning of the BA is indiscernible, suggesting neither a particular body nor degree of knowledge.

Charles Murray describes the ridiculousness of the current "BA System":
Imagine that America had no system of post-secondary education, and you were a member of a task force assigned to create one from scratch. One of your colleagues submits this proposal:
First, we will set up a single goal to represent educational success, which will take four years to achieve no matter what is being taught. We will attach an economic reward to it that seldom has anything to do with what has been learned. We will urge large numbers of people who do not possess adequate ability to try to achieve the goal, wait until they have spent a lot of time and money, and then deny it to them. We will stigmatize everyone who doesn't meet the goal. We will call the goal a "BA."
You would conclude that your colleague was cruel, not to say insane. But that's the system we have in place. [4]
We have a curriculum watered down in the hopes of making it within reach of people who cannot otherwise understand it. First, this curriculum naturally hurts those capable or seeking a full liberal arts education and second, when those the curriculum was watered down for fail, it benefits no one. (No one, except perhaps high schools who get to boast that their students went on to college, testing services, and the colleges' coffers.)

Culturally, though, what is the impact? A culture where you cannot discuss Shakespeare or Mozart with a college graduate. One where a single chord that should wring the heart and would have set a scholar from generations ago to exclaim, "Beethoven!" goes unrecognized. Perhaps most conspicuously absent, so conspicuously on account of its long history and esteem, is Classical knowledge. Stories, myths to some cultures and simply examples to others, that have bound and permeated Western Civilization for the last 2,500 years and more are now not part of the common cultural ethos. Who would be touched to be called a Pylades or a Hypermnestra? Does invoking the name "Hecate" conjure up the thoughts for people today as it did for past readers? Even in the 18th and 19th centuries, amidst the burgeoning of science and the enlightenment, Greek and Roman stories flourished in art. One could fill pages listing merely the operas based on Classical themes and characters. The people of those eras had no pretense such stories told happened, i.e. the stories were not myths to these people, but they retold them because those stories said something important, about the world, about man, his nature, strengths, weaknesses and so on. I would theorize also because these stories were theirs as Westerners. It was their inherited tradition, the Western way of understanding the world and how they thought man should live in it, and it was their gift to enjoy, their challenge to increase, and their duty to pass on. 

Without the same body of stories, historical or mythical, how to understand Mozart recalling Shakespeare, Shakespeare evoking the name of a Roman king, or Gluck quoting Tasso quoting Homer? More practically, who would know the difference if you called the president a Honorius or a Cincinnatus, called a battle a Cannae or a Zama?

I am reminded of an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in which Captain Picard has to communicate with an alien who communicates strictly by metaphor, for example instead of saying "he is alone" he would say he is "on the ocean" and to express a great struggle, he would mention the names of two famous people who struggled. The alien, dying, asks Picard to tell him one of his Earth stories and Picard tells him the story of Gilgamesh and Enkidu:

The difficulty of course was that the characters had different stories and different traditions, but what if Picard had none? The episode concludes with Picard reading the Homeric hymns and familiarizing himself with "our stories." What story would you, could you, tell? Of Ceyx and Alcymone, Achilles versus Hector, of the labors of Hercules or the crimes of Heliogabulus?

What is the alternative to investing some portion of society with its historic culture? For the West, perhaps it is a hopelessly literal society that forgoes artistic, metaphorical expression and chooses to express an emotion clinically or with vulgarity instead of with beauty. Perhaps it is an arrogant one writing heedless of Cicero or Demosthenes, or a cowardly one that prefers to medicalize parts the human condition instead of embracing or at least pondering them. (On that note, consider Adams' suggesting to his son that a poet be a companion and poetry a source of happiness.) It is generally, though, an ungrateful one that treats tradition as a burden instead of as an inheritance.

In his essay The New Learning That Failed Victor Davis Hanson accurately describes the decline of the Classical core of liberal education. I have been concerned more with the effect, which I see most of all to be a decline of communication, a decline: of capacity to  communicate at all (lack of intellect and reason), of desire to communicate with grace, sophistication, and depth (lack of models), and ability to draw on universal, significant, elements (lack of stories); all components of a Classical education. Yet Hanson points out what is perhaps modernity's worst crime against its Western heritage:
The West, alone of world cultures, was self-critical and introspective, curious about other civilizations, ready to turn its own empirical standards on itself, always attempting to match its idealism with actual fact—Socrates teaching about the vanities of the wealthy, Antigone the bias of the male chauvinist, Aristophanes the contradiction of democratic egalitarianism, or Tacitus and Sallust the use of Western military power for nefarious purposes. Indeed, professors and students are now denouncing perceived Western pathologies only through a tradition of Western empiricism and free expression of thought, unavailable elsewhere. [6]
The turning of Western tradition's virtue of self-criticism into self-immolation and self-repudiation is the heart of the loss of our stories. I believe Dr. Hanson has answered the why of it in his essay, so now we may ask: what have we in their stead?

[1] McCullough, David. John Adams. Simon and Schuster Paperbacks. New York. 2001. (pp. 259-260)
[2] Education.
[3] Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the Virginian. Little, Brown and Company. Boston. 1948. (pp. 57)
[4] Murray, Charles. For Most People, College is a Waste of Time.WSJ.August 13, 2008.
[5] Furedi, Frank. Let's give children the 'store of human knowledge.' Spiked Online. November 18, 2009.
[6] Hanson, Victor Davis. The New Learning That Failed. The New Criterion. May 2008.

Monday, January 25, 2010

Two Takes on Alexander Hamilton

I. Peter Robinson of the Hoover Institution's Uncommon Knowledge interviews Ron Chernow, author of Alexander Hamilton (2004.)


II. Thomas DiLorenzo speaks at the Mises Lecture event Depression, Monetary Destruction, and the Path to Sound Money on his book, Hamilton's Curse: How Jefferson's Arch Enemy Betrayed the American Revolution--and What It Means for Americans Today (2008.)


Friday, January 22, 2010

Around the Web

For the week of Saturday, January 16 through Friday, January 22.

1) In Forbes, Trevor Butterworth on What We Can Learn From Cicero.

. . . even in the practical-minded, forward-looking America on the 19th century, Cicero was seen as the most eloquent and inspiring guide to eloquence. It is only as that century turned into the 20th that the classics were attacked for lacking relevance in a new science-driven age, much as the classical language of architecture was dismissed by the fierce, unadorned geometries of Bauhaus. Indeed, Columbia's journalism school was conceived as a temple of science rather than one devoted to the art of writing.
2) Richard M. Reinsch reviews James Madison and the Spirit of Republican Self-Government, by Colleen A. Sheehan for City-Journal.

In exploring the commitment Madison made to this “empire of reason,” Sheehan also shows how the Virginian Lycurgus drew on the thought of Aristotle, particularly his idea of regime stability. From a close reading of Aristotle’s Politics, Madison discerned lessons strikingly opposed to John Adams’s own classical studies on the stability of regimes. . .

In his essay “The Spirit of Governments,” Madison argued that majority rule must be a moral rule that secured persons in their property and their consciences from faction and tyranny. The tutored majority must govern according to natural justice. This could only happen if citizens’ political choices were the product of a civic education that stressed free government through the norms of man’s natural and political being.

The modern political project too easily dismisses the ends and purposes of constitutionalism. Such purposes provide final meaning and compel our admiration and consent to the republican project. While never denying the importance of constitutional structure, Madison understood that such order was not self-executing. A constitution can set political actors and institutions at variance with one another, thus preventing a unity of unlawful power, but these same parties can also decide to collude and drain the system of its life. The order of the American republic—its conservation and, if necessary, reform—was to be found, finally, in the souls of its citizens, who must be formed in the spirit of constitutional liberty. This is Madison’s gift to America.
3) On the Mises Blog, Stephen Mauzy on Bernie Madoff, FDR, 'Ponzi Schemes,' and who is really to blame:

Given the Sword of Damocles hanging overhead, the younger generation should have reason to pause. But they don't pause. In fact, they've done past generations one better by voting for supporters of the mother of all Ponzi schemes — a Trojan horse single-payer healthcare system, delivered on the improbable slats of efficient government oversight, onerous penalties for noncompliance, and, as far as I can tell, more taxes on the rich and tanning salons. Thank you, public education.

Victims of micro-level Ponzi schemes are only greedy; they don't infringe upon others' freedom. The same can't be said of those who demand that we all participate in these macro-level Ponzi schemes.
 4) In the WSJ, Lee Lawrence takes a look at the Rubin Museum of Art's exhibition, Visions of the Cosmos, running through May 10 in NYC.

5) The Scholar's Life, at Laudator Temporis Acti.

Monday, January 18, 2010

Movie Review: Barry Lyndon

Directed by Stanley Kubrick. 1975.

"How did they make a movie of Lolita?"

Kubrick might have adapted Lolita's tagline for his 1975 film, perhaps something like, "Why make a movie about Barry Lyndon?" The director could not say then, in 1975, what drew him to Thackery's upstart ("It's like trying to say why you fell in love with your wife–it's meaningless." [1]) and I cannot say now. Indeed out of the film's great menagerie Barry is one of the less appealing characters, drawing less attention than the buffoon Captain Quin, the portly and avuncular Grogan, the genteel Chevalier, the cynical Sir Charles Lyndon, or even the highwayman with his baleful glare. Barry, on the other hand. . . he's just there. Kubrick surely was on to something, though, when he said, "People like Barry are successful because  they are not obvious–they don't announce themselves." [1] Verily, and how often are events simply happening when Barry is coming through as opposed to Barry seeking any one goal in particular?

Take the first issue, that of his cousin's engagement to Captain Quin. Having never announced his feelings for her and having turned down her scrumptious, and unqualified, challenge to find exactly where she hid her ribbon, she accepts the proposal of Captain Quin.  Incensed, Barry (still Redmond Barry of Barryton) challenges Quin to a duel. Victorious, he sets out for Dublin to hide out for a time and avoid the authorities. Why did he undertake the risk in the first place? After all, he did not even hint at, let alone announce, let alone attempt to court Nora, and he risks a duel, endangering two lives and the money the marriage would bring to his teetering family. We learn later the duel was set up, sans bullets, by his family to get rid of Barry since Quin was too scared to marry Nora while Barry was there. So it is that Barry's vapid valiance ended up setting him on his way from home.

Consider the next happenstances, such as Barry getting robbed on the road to Dublin, necessitating him joining the army to improve his rank and funds. In the army he happens to meet old friend Captain Grogan, who happens to get killed when his regiment tries to clear a road otherwise meaningless except for the need of the main army to pass near. Shortly later, having survived the engagement but jolted by Grogan's death, Barry happens upon two soldiers who have left their horses and gear to bathe and overhears one discussing his orders to deliver letters. Seizing the opportunity, Barry steals the soldier's orders, identity, and horse, and deserts. Thus for nor reason in particular, 55-minutes in to the film, we find Redmond Barry of Barryville taking up with a beautiful woman somewhere in central Europe.

After being caught in a series of preposterous lies while traveling through Prussian-occupied Europe Barry is forced to enlist again, this time for the Prussians. While defending a fort, a tale he will later wildly embellish in telling his son, he rescues his captain and during the commendation ceremony we get a truly frank description of Barry from a higher-up:
Corporal Barry, you're a gallant soldier and have evidently come of good stock, but you're idle, dissolute, and unprincipled. You've done a great deal of harm to the men. And for all your talents and bravery I am sure you will come to no good.
This is quite accurate. Indeed Barry is gallant, having challenged Quin to a duel, having boxed a British serviceman who insulted him, pulled an injured Captain Grogan off the field, and having rescued Captain Potzdorf at the fort. Let us consider Barry's reply before analyzing the situation:
I hope the Colonel is mistaken. I have fallen into bad company, but I've only done as other soldiers do. I've never had a friend or protector before. . . to show that I was worthy of better things. The Colonel may say I'm ruined, and send me to the Devil. But, I would go to the Devil to serve the Regiment.

His first recourse is to relativism. The second statement is interesting insofar as it denies both the goodwill and guidance of his uncle and Captain Grogan and implies if he had such a protector, he would prosper. Yet when Potzdorf steps into the role, Barry betrays reward him with betrayal.  What of Barry's feats, then? They add up to practically nothing: Quin marries Nora, Grogan dies anyway, and he betrays Potzdorf. Without any underlying principles Barry's "feats" are just one thing after another. There is no "why" of them. Actually the assessment is more damning when we recall we were told the Prussian army at the time was made up "of men from the lowest levels of humanity" and according to the colonel, Barry was a bad influence on them!

Richard Schickel makes the critical observation about Barry's great flaw:
In the novel, Thackeray used a torrent of words to demonstrate Barry's lack of self-knowledge. . . Daringly, Kubrick uses silence to make the same point. . . So it is mainly by the look of Ran O'Neal's eyes–a sharp glint when he spies the main chance, a gaze of hurt befuddlement when things go awry–that we understand Barry's motives. And since she cannot see his own face, we can be certain he is not aware of these self-betrayals.  According to Kubrick, Barry's silence also implies that "he is not very bright" he is an overreacher who "gets in over his head in situations he doesn't fully understand." [1]
Even Lord Bullingdon, Lady Lyndon's son not yet a teenager, pegs Barry and the situation to a tee: "He seems to me little more than a common opportunist. I don't think he loves my mother at all. And it hurts me very much to see her make such a fool of herself." In the absence of any concept of what he wants for himself or what he wants to be, he just sees and reacts. Though he does not love Nora, or does not understand that he does, he despises Quin for proposing to her. He simply "grew tired" of the military life and thought nothing of deserting the British army. Potzdorf outlived his usefulness and Barry went to follow someone else. He sought to mimic the distingué of the chevalier. He saw Lady Lyndon and decided to marry her and part company with the chevalier. Then Barry grew tired of her company and lived apart from her. His mother said he needed a title for security so he sought one.

Indeed Barry's one significant attribute, his love of his son, is somewhat of an aberration. It occurs not upon the boy's birth and in fact he continues to ignore his son, Bryan, and his wife, living separately from and cheating on her while Bryan is an infant. Quite spontaneously he walks over to his wife one afternoon, apologizes, and becomes a doting father. Yet this seemingly laudable attribute has a curious lack of weight as it is just another happenstance. We think no more highly of Barry now that love of his son proceeds alongside his rank opportunism. We can simply say it is "not bad" just like not shooting Lord Bullingdon in the duel. After all, why does he refuse to shoot? Because of something vaguely to do with his wife or the death of his son? There is no way of knowing, it's just another one of those things along Barry's way.

The only constants for Barry are his character and his thinking, i.e. his dashing and his dimness. His son's death, the ensuing misery of his wife, and the duel do not provide for any recognition for Barry, i.e. any recognition of his mistakes, faults, or situation. When the narrator makes the last comments about Barry and his tale, Barry is described not just as "beaten" but "baffled." Whence comes, then, the pleasure of watching Barry Lyndon? Is there some curiosity satisfied by watching this fool, by taking in this curious observation, beautifully told? Why does Lady Lyndon, when signing her bills and going to sign Barry's annuity, become excited and short of breath? Is it with thoughts of Barry himself, or just the flood of emotions from recalling tumultuous times?

The concept of telling an epic tale about a non-heroic character is telling itself. Against a backdrop of clashing empires, scorched battlefields, sumptuous villas, and curious characters. . . there's Barry just wandering through, insignificant yet curious. 

It was in the reign of George III that the aforesaid personages lived and quarrelled; good or bad, handsome or ugly, rich or poor, they are all equal now.


[1] Phillips, Gene D. (ed.) Stanley Kubrick Interviews. (Conversations with Filmmakers series. Essay and interview by Richard Schickel. 1975. pp. 162-163.) 2001. University Press of Mississippi.

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Smashing Myths and Restoring Sound Money

Lecture from the Mises Institute

Presented by Thomas E. Woods, Jr. at "Depression, Monetary Destruction, and the Path to Sound Money": the Mises Circle in Greenville, South Carolina, 3 October 2009. Sponsored by Atlantic Bullion and Coin, and Professional Planning of Easley, LLC

A selection from the lecture:

Problems with fiat money: It's hard to save for the future.
It's hard to save for the future under a fiat system where the government can create all this money. It was the case in the 19th century that to save for the future you could simply acquire precious metal coins. Just acquire them. Now of course you could invest them, that's true, but the point is you didn't have to. You didn't have to be a speculator. You didn't have to go into the stock market. You didn't have to say, "Where can I put my money so that it will at least hold onto its value?" You didn't have to worry about the because it held its value. When these metals served as money they held their value or increased their value over time and any graph you look at and any set of statistics you look at will bear this out.

Whereas today, only a fool would save for the future by piling up federal reserve notes. You would have to factor in a depreciation factor of at least three. So, in other words, it makes it harder to save because just to hold onto the purchasing power you have earned you have to become a speculator and most people, myself included, are not fit to be speculators. We don't belong in the stock market, we don't belong in some of these financial instruments. But we feel like we have to do that as a self-defense mechanism. And that was not the as under hard money.

On the same topic, a story from Theodore Dalrymple in City Journal: Inflation's Moral Hazard

A Selection:
Yet this was a crude way of looking at things, as my father’s fate should have instructed me. He sold his business in the sixties, at the end of the period of price stability that had reigned throughout his life, for what then seemed a large amount of money. He was a man who, for both temperamental and ideological reasons, held a deep contempt for financial speculation and wheeling and dealing, with the result that he did nothing as inflation inexorably eroded his savings. He grew poorer and poorer through the remaining 30 years of his life, and might have sunk into poverty had he not moved into a house that I owned. And this after reaching a level of wealth that, relatively speaking, was greater than I shall probably ever know.

For a while, I was angry about what seemed my father’s improvidence and lack of foresight. As the current financial crisis has conclusively demonstrated, however, not everyone is blessed with foresight, not even those whose livelihood depends primarily on the claim of possessing it. My father was born of a generation that saw money as a store of value, a far from dishonorable notion—and one that, when it reflected reality, helped give a lot of people peace of mind. And as I reach the age when inflation might cause me some embarrassment, even hardship, my sympathy with my father’s plight has grown. I am no longer young enough to fight another day, economically speaking: the destruction of my wealth by inflation would be final. In an aging population, more and more people are in my position, which helps explain why an age of prosperity can be an age of anxiety, even without a financial crisis.

Monday, January 11, 2010

Movie Review: Bottle Shock

Directed by Randall Miller. 2008.

In the absence of flashiness and spectacle and without technical polish and narrative novelty Bottle Shock is left to rise or fall by its ideas. It is appropriate, though, that this film should be so modest in presentation since its characters too are so. Bottle Shock quite simply tells the story of Jim Barrett in 1976 Napa Valley, California struggling to perfect his Chardonnay and make his business fly. Struggle he does, with the Franco-centric wine world and prejudices against American wine, with the need to pay back the debt he has accumulated in his risky venture, with embarrassment in the face of those who thought his endeavor foolish, and with the sheer difficulty of his task.

Jim has one philosophy for growing grapes and it is a tough one:
Jim: The vineyard's best fertilizer is the owner's footsteps. . . its eluvial volcanic soil. . . you want to limit the irrigation because it makes the vines struggle, intensifies the flavor. A comfortable grape, well-watered, well-fertilized grape grows into a lazy ingredient of a lousy wine.

Sam: So from hardship comes enlightenment.

Jim: For a grape.
His philosophy, peppered with references to struggling and being stronger where one has been hurt, rather seems not to have been working in his personal life. His struggles have not brought success to his business. His hippie son, Bo, is neither employed nor educated and without prospects for either. Perhaps his son, Jim thinks, has simply had it too easy to want to reach out and struggle for something. In addition to his entrepreneurial spirit and stoic take on suffering, Jim is characterized by his insistence that he himself succeed and without charity. When Bo borrows money from his mother, who has left Jim and re-married his law partner from his old firm, for some needed casks, Jim is outraged and unwilling even to consider it a gift,  "a gift like that costs more than money. . . I don't want to owe anybody." It's his land, his grapes, his wine, his toil, and it has it be his success.

Jim is particularly suspicious of Steven Spurrier, a British sommelier on his own entrepreneurial quest selecting Napa wines for a competitive taste-testing against French ones. Jim suspects a plot to embarrass the Americans on the bicentennial with a rigged competition and refuses to give Spurrier the wines for testing. His son, though, once again in secret, gives Spurrier the wines and. . . well the rest is history.

The mix-up about the wine's color is successful in adding some dynamism and tension to the end of the movie, but that it feels slightly contrived is perhaps a triumph and not a failing. You see, there are really no villains in the movie. The French wine snobs are characterized as such, but they figure only slightly into the story. The movie is not about whether Jim defeats his rivals, indeed all the Napa viticulturists realize if any ones of them wins the new Napa reputation will benefit them all. Bottle Shock is likewise not about Jim overcoming the contrivances, crimes, or machinations of someone, but whether he has it within himself to succeed unaided. In fact Jim's success party comes not when he wins the competition, but when he opens his bottle of perfect, clear Chardonnay in his old office and stands there in the triumph of his challenge.

Perhaps it was this success that motivated Bo to follow in his father's footsteps. Perhaps at last he glimpsed the connections among a person, one's work and the intensely personal joy of achievement and was inspired to take on a struggle for himself.

Vergil. Georgics II.
O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, [458]
agricolas! quibus ipsa procul discordibus armis
fundit humo facilem victum iustissima tellus.
Si non ingentem foribus domus alta superbis
mane salutantum totis vomit aedibus undam,
nec varios inhiant pulchra testudine postis
inlusasque auro vestes Ephyreiaque aera,
alba neque Assyrio fucatur lana veneno
nec casia liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi:
at secura quies et nescia fallere vita,
dives opum variarum, at latis otia fundis—
speluncae vivique lacus et frigida Tempe
mugitusque boum mollesque sub arbore somni—
non absunt; illic saltus ac lustra ferarum
et patiens operum exiguoque adsueta iuventus,
sacra deum sanctique patres; extrema per illos
iustitia excedens terris vestigia fecit.

Translation I. | Translation II.

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

A Mozart Bibliography

A Mozart Bibliography
A Listing of Books On Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, His Life, Music, and World.

W. A. Mozart, 1789.

This bibliography began as a list of books on Mozart I wanted to read. In time it became a list of books I had read, then one of books I owned. I then began categorizing the list into, "books I want as references," "books on specific pieces I want to study," "books I should only buy if I've read everything else already" and so forth. I decided to post it online to serve as one of intermediate comprehensiveness between the basic list and the bibliographies in Abert and Solomon.

The current edition of Abert's W. A. Mozart (Translated by Stewart Spencer. Edited by Cliff Eisen. Yale University Press. 2007.) contains the largest bibliography at 64 pages. Though short of the bibliography in Abert, Solomon's bibliography in Mozart: A Life is imminently useful and more manageable at 17 pages. Both volumes contain an index of Mozart's works by genre, an index of names and subjects, and a copy of the Köchel-Verzeichnis.

Also, both the Abert and Solomon bibliographies contain substantial listings of non-English sources, papers, journal essays, reports, symposiums, and volumes of original documents, none of which are included here. You will find an online listing of such sources at this site: [link]. Articles in English are listed here.

Dates given below are of the original publication date of the work, whether it is Niemetschek's 1798 biography or the 2003 New Grove Mozart. After publication books may subsequently be published by another press or reissued as a new edition, sometimes under a slightly altered title. As such, I have not included references to specific publishers or specific page numbers. I have, though, provided approximate page lengths where I thought it helpful, mostly so no one goes out of the way to buy a book only to find the essay far shorter than expected.

I hope you find this listing useful.

NB: You can quickly search this page with your web browser's search command: Ctrl + F on the PC and Command ⌘ + F on the Mac.

For convenience the following is a shortened URL to this page:  

Last Updated: 1/16/14
Monitor this page for changes with
Please leave corrections and suggestions for additions in the comments section below.

The Bibliography


  1. Comprehensive
  2. Biography
  3. Handbooks, Compendiums, Surveys, Overviews,  Et Cetera
  4. Musicological Analysis
  5. Opera
  6. Performance Practice
  7. Essays in Books Not Exclusively About Mozart
  8. Miscellaneous Books on Mozart
  9. Others in Mozart's Life
  10. Compilations of Primary Sources
  11. 18th Century Culture, Thought, Music, Et Cetera
  12. Articles
  13. Journals
  14. Miscellaneous

I. Comprehensive

Abert, Hermann. W.A. Mozart. 1923-1924.

Deutsch, Otto Erich. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. 1965. (N.B. Excludes Mozart's letters and the Mozart family correspondence.)

Jahn, Otto. W. A. Mozart. 1856.

II. Biography

Banks, Chris A. Mozart: Prodigy of Nature. 1991.

Blom, Eric. Mozart. 1935.

Braunbehrens, Volkmar. Mozart in Vienna: 1781-1791. 1986.

Breakspeare, Eustace J. Mozart. 1902.

Buchner, Alexander. Mozart and Prague. 1962.

Buenzod, E. Mozart. 1930.

Cormican, Brendan. Mozart's Death - Mozart's Requiem: An Investigation. 1991.

Davenport, Marcia. Mozart. 1932.

Einstein, Alfred. Mozart: His Character, His Work. 1945.

Gay, Peter. Mozart. (A Penguin Life) 1999.

Gheon, Henri. In Search of Mozart. 1932. (original French edition, Promenades avec Mozart)

Gutman, Robert. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. 2000.

Haas, Robert. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 1933.

Henry, Jacques. Mozart the Freemason: The Masonic Influence on His Musical Genius. 2006.

Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. Mozart. 1982.

Hussey, Dyneley. Wolfgang Amade Mozart. 1928.

Holmes, Edward. The Life of Mozart. 1845.

Johnson, Paul. Mozart: A Life. 2013.

Keyes, Ivor Christopher Banfield. Mozart: His Music in His Life. 1980.

Koolbergen, Jeroen. Mozart: 1756-1791 (Great Composers). 1998.

Küng, Hans. Mozart: Traces of Transcendence. 1993.

Landon, H. C. Robbins. 1791: Mozart's Last Year. 1988.

Landon, H. C. Robbins. Mozart and the Masons: New Light on the Lodge "Crowned Hope." 1983.

Landon, H.C. Robbins. Mozart and Vienna. 1991.

Landon, H.C. Robbins. Mozart: The Golden Years. 1989.

Lingg, Ann M. Mozart: Genius of Harmony. 1946.

McLean, Ian. Mozart: 1756-1791. 1990.

Melograni, Piero. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: A Biography. 2006.

Mersman, Hans. Mozart. 1925.

Morris, James M. (ed.) On Mozart. 1994.

Nettl, Paul. Mozart and Masonry. 1957.

Niemetschek, Franz. Mozart: The First Biography. 1798.

Ottaway, Hugh. Mozart. 1979.

Paumgartner, Bernhard. Mozart. 1927.

Publig, Maria. Mozart. 1991.

Rosselli, John. The Life of Mozart. 1998.

Rushton, Julian. Mozart. 2009.

Sadie, Stanley. Mozart: The Early Years. 2005.

Schenk, Erich. Mozart and His Times. 1955.

Schroeder, David. Mozart in Revolt: Strategies of Resistance, Mischief and Deception. 1999.

Sitwell, Sacheverell. Mozart. 1932.

Solomon, Maynard. Mozart: A Life. 1995.

Stafford, William. The Mozart Myths: A Critical Reassessment. 1991.

Talbot, J. E. Mozart. 1930.

Tchernaya, E. S. Mozart: His Life and Times. 1986.

Tenschert, Roland. Mozart. 1930.

Thomson, Katharine. The Masonic Thread in Mozart. 1977.

Thompson, Wendy. Mozart: A Bicentennial Tribute. 1989.

Turner, W. J. Mozart: The Man and His Works. 1938.

Wates, Roye E. Mozart: An Introduction to the Music, the Man, and the Myths. 2010.

Zaluski, Iwo and Zaluski, Pamela. Mozart in Italy. 2000.

III. Handbooks, Compendiums, Surveys, Overviews,  Et Cetera

Biancolli, Louis. (ed.) The Mozart Handbook: A Guide to the Man and His Music. 1954.

Eisen, Cliff. Mozart Studies. 1992.

Eisen, Cliff. Mozart Studies 2. 1998.

Hutchings, Arthur. Mozart: The Man, The Musician. 1976.

Keefe, Simon P. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Mozart. 2003.

Keefe, Simon P. (ed.) Mozart Studies. 2006.

Landon, H.C. Robbins. (ed.) The Mozart Companion. 1969.

Landon, H.C. Robbins. (ed.) The Mozart Compendium. 1990.

Landon, H.C. Robbins. The Mozart Essays. 1995.

Lang, Paul Henry. The Creative World of Mozart. 1963.

Link, Dorothea and Nagley, Judith. Words About Mozart: Essays in Honour of Stanley Sadie. 2005.

Rushton, Julian. The New Grove Guide to Mozart and His Operas. 2007.

Sadie, Stanley and Tyrrell, John. The New Grove Mozart. 2003.

Sadie, Stanley. (ed.) Wolfgang Amadè Mozart: Essays on his Life and his Music. 1996.

Zaslaw, Neal and Cowdery, William. The Compleat Mozart: A Guide to the Musical Works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 1991.

IV. Musicological Analysis

Allanbrook, Wye Jamison. Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart. 1984.

Caplin, William E. Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 1998.

Damschroder, David. Harmony in Haydn and Mozart. 2012.

Dearling, Robert. The Music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: The Symphonies. 1982.

Dickinson, A. E. F. A Study of Mozart's Last Three Symphonies. 1927.

Dunhill, Thomas. Mozart's String Quartets. 1927.

Etheridge, David. Mozart's Clarinet Concerto: The Clarinetist's View. 1989.

Finscher, L. Wolff, C. (ed.) The String Quartets of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: Studies of the Autograph Manuscripts. 1980.

Flothius, Marius. Mozart's Piano Concertos. 2001.

Fredman, Myer. From Idomeneo to Die Zauberflöte: A Conductor's Commentary on the Operas of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 2002.

Girdlestone, Cuthbert. Mozart and His Piano Concertos. 1948.

Grayson, David. Mozart: Piano Concertos Nos. 20 and 21. 1999.

Greene, David B. The Spirituality of Mozart's Mass in C Minor, Bach's Mass in B Minor, and Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time: When Hearing Sacred Music Is Relating to God. 2012.

Harlow, Martin. Mozart's Chamber Music with Keyboard. 2012.

Hutchings, Arthur. A Companion to Mozart's Piano Concertos. 1948.

Irving, John. Mozart: The "Haydn" Quartets. 1998.

Irving, John. Mozart's Piano Concertos. 2003.

Irving, John. Mozart's Piano Sonatas: Contexts, Sources, Style. 1997.

Irving, John. Understanding Mozart's Piano Sonatas. 2010.

Keefe, Simon P. Mozart's Piano Concertos: Dramatic Dialogue in the Age of Enlightenment. 2001.

Keefe, Simon P. Mozart's Requiem: Reception, Work, Completion. 2012.

Kinderman, William. Mozart's Piano Music. 2006.

King, Alec Hyatt. Mozart Wind and String Concertos. 1978.

Lawson, Colin. Mozart: Clarinet Concerto. 1996.

Leeson, Daniel N. Opus Ultimum: The Story of the Mozart Requiem. 2004.

Levin, Robert D. Who Wrote the Mozart Four-Wind Concertante? 1998.

Marks, F. H. The Sonata: Its Form and Meaning as Exemplified in the Pianoforte Sonatas of Mozart. 1921.

Maunder, C. Richard F. Mozart's Requiem: On Preparing a New Edition. 1988.

Mercado, Mario R. The Evolution of Mozart's Pianistic Style. 1992.

Mirka, Danuta. Metric Manipulations in Haydn and Mozart: Chamber Music for Strings, 1787-1971. 2009.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Practical Elements of Thorough Bass. 1823. (A collection of the composer's lessons compiled by his students and posthumously published.)

Sadie, Stanley. Mozart Symphonies. 1986.

Saint-Foix, Georges de. The Symphonies of Mozart. 1949.

Sisman, Elaine R. Mozart: The Jupiter Symphony. 1993.

Smith, Erik. Mozart Serenades, Divertimenti and Dances. 1982.

Tischler, Hans. A Structural Analysis of Mozart's Piano Concertos. 1966.

Waldoff, Jessica. Recognition in Mozart's Operas. 2006.

Wolff, Christoph. Mozart's Requiem: Historical and Analytical Studies, Documents, Score. 1994.

Yuee, Lai Mee & Yeo, Young-Hwan. A Descriptive Analysis of Mozart Piano Sonata: For the 1st Movement of Mozart Piano Sonata in Bb Major, K.333. 2012.

Zaslaw, Neal. Mozart's Piano Concertos: Text, Context, Interpretation. 1997.

Zaslaw, Neal. Mozart's Symphonies: Context, Performance Practice, Reception. 1989.

V. Opera

Angermüller, Rudolph. Mozart's Operas. 1988.

Bauman, Thomas. W. A. Mozart: Die Entführung aus dem Serail. (Cambridge Opera Handbooks) 1988.

Benn, Christopher. Mozart on the Stage. 1946.

Branscombe, Peter. W. A. Mozart: Die Zauberflöte. (Cambridge Opera Handbooks) 1991.

Brophy, Brigid. Mozart the Dramatist: The Value of His Operas to Him, to His Age, and to Us. 1988.

Brown, Bruce Alan. W. A. Mozart: Così fan tutte. (Cambridge Opera Handbooks) 1995.

Brown-Montesano, Kristi. Understanding the Women of Mozart's Operas. 2007.

Cairns, David. Mozart and His Operas. 2006.

Carter, Tim. W. A. Mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro. (Cambridge Opera Handbooks) 1988.

Chailley, Jacques. The Magic Flute Unveiled: Esoteric Symbolism in Mozart's Masonic Opera. 1992.

Dent, Edward J. Mozart's Operas: A Critical Study. 1913.

Ferrara, William. Staging Scenes from the Operas of Mozart: A Guide for Teachers and Singers. 2014.

Fisher, Burton D. Mozart's Don Giovanni (Opera Classics Library Series) 2002.

Ford, Charles. Così?: Sexual Politics in Mozart's Operas. 1991.

Ford, Charles. Music, Sexuality and the Enlightenment in Mozart's Figaro, Don Giovanni and Cosi Fan Tutte. 2012.

Fredman, Myer. From Idomeneo to Die Zauberflöte: A Conductor's Commentary on the Operas of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 2002.

Gianturco, Carolyn. Mozart's Early Operas. 1981.

Goehring, Edmund J. Three Modes of Perception in Mozart: The Philosophical, Pastoral, and Comic in Cosí fan tutte. 2004.

Heartz, Daniel. Mozart's Operas. 1992.

Hunter, Mary. Mozart's Operas: A Companion. 2008.

King, Alec Hyatt. Mozart Chamber Music. 1968.

Levarie, Siegmund. Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro: A Critical Analysis. 1952.

Mann, William. The Operas of Mozart. 1977.

Miller, Jonathan. The Don Giovanni Book: Myths of Seduction and Betrayal. 1987.

Osborne, Charles. The Complete Operas of Mozart. 1978.

Rice, John A. Mozart on the Stage. 2009.

Rice, John A. W. A. Mozart: La Clemenza di Tito. (Cambridge Opera Handbooks.) 1991.

Rushton, Julian. W. A. Mozart: Don Giovanni. (Cambridge Opera Handbooks) 1981.

Russell, Charles C. The Don Juan Legend Before Mozart: With a Collection of 18th Century Opera Librettos. 1999.

Steptoe, Andrew. The Mozart-Da Ponte Operas: The Cultural and Musical Background to Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cosi fan tutte. 1988.

Till, Nicholas. Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue and Beauty in Mozart's Operas. 1992.

Woodfield, Ian. Mozart's Così fan tutte: A Compositional History. 2008.

VI. Performance Practice

Badura-Skoda, Eva and Badura-Skoda, Paul. Interpreting Mozart on the Keyboard. 1962.

Brown, Clive. Classical and Romantic Performing Practice 1750-1900. 1999.

Etheridge, David. Mozart's Clarinet Concerto: The Clarinetist's View. 1989.

Fredman, Myer. From Idomeneo to Die Zauberflöte: A Conductor's Commentary on the Operas of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 2002.

Gerig, Reginald R. Famous Pianists and Their Technique. 1974.

Lloyd-Watts, Valery. Ornamentation: A Question & Answer Manual. 1995.

Marty, Jean-Pierre. The Tempo Indications of Mozart. 1989.

Neumann, Frederick. Ornamentation and Improvisation in Mozart. 1986.

Brown, Howard Mayer and Sadie, Stanley. (eds.) Performance Practice: Music After 1600. 1989.

Rosenblum, Sandra P. Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music: Their Principles and Applications. 1988.

Rothschild, Fritz. Musical Performance in the Times of Mozart and Beethoven. 1961.

Taruskin, Richard. Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance. 1995.

Todd, R. Larry and Williams, Peter. Perspectives on Mozart Performance. 1991.

Wolff, Konrad. Masters of the Keyboard, Enlarged Edition: Individual Style Elements in the Piano Music of Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, and Brahms. 1990.

VII. Essays in Other Books

Adolphe, Bruce. Of Mozart, Parrots, Cherry Blossoms in the Wind. 1999.
  1. What Did Mozart Know. 4 pgs.
Bauman, Thomas and McClymonds, Marita Petzoldt (ed.) Opera and the Enlightenment. 1995.
  1. Chapter 12: The "storm" music of Beaumarchais' Barbier de Séville. 16 pgs.
  2. Chapter 13: On Don Giovanni, 2. 10 pgs.
  3. Chapter 14: Leopold II, Mozart, and the return to a Golden Age. 28 pgs.
Berger, Karol. Bach's Cycle, Mozart's Arrow: An Essay on the Origins of Musical Modernity. 2007.
  1. Part II. Mozart's Arrow. 113 pgs.
Berger, Karol in Allanbrook, Wye Jamison and Levy, Janet M. and Mahrt, William P. (eds.) Convention in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Music: Essays in Honor of Leonard G. Ratner. 1992.
  1. Toward a History of Hearing: The Classical Concerto, a Sample Case. 24pgs.
Berger, Melvin. Guide to Chamber Music. 2001.

Brendel, Alfred. Alfred Brendel on Music: His Collected Essays. 2001.
  1. A Mozart Player Gives Himself Advice. 8pgs.
  2. Minor Mozart: In Defense of His Solo Works. 7 pgs.
Brown, Jane K. The Persistence of Allegory: Drama and Neoclassicism from Shakespeare to Wagner. 2006.
  1. Mozart and Classicism. 9 pgs.
  2. Various References
Burrows, Raymond & Redmond, Bessie Carroll. (compiled) Concerto Themes: Over a thousand themes from 144 of the World's Great Concertos. 1951.

Burrows, Raymond & Redmond, Bessie Carroll. (compiled) Symphony Themes. 1942.

Damschroder, David. Harmony in Haydn and Mozart. 2012.

Dirst, Matthew. Engaging Bach: The Keyboard Legacy from Marpurg to Mendelssohn. 2012.
  1. 3. What Mozart Learned from Bach. 31 pgs.
Donington, Robert. Opera and Its Symbols: The Unity of Words, Music, and Staging. 1990.
  1. 7. The Enlightenment. 8pgs.
  2. 8. A Masonic Vision. 13 pgs.
Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 1992.
  1. Part Four. Mozart, Genius Apparent. 73 pgs
  2. Part Seven. Mozart, Genius Achieved. 73 pgs.
Engel, Carl. Discords Mingled. 1931.
  1. The Mozart Couple.
Fisk, Josiah (ed.) Composers on Music: Eight Centuries of Writings. 1997.
  1. Chapter Three. Wolfgang Amadè Mozart. 8 pgs.
Flaherty, G. in Yolton, J. W. & Brown, J. E. Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture. 1988.
  1. Mozart and the Mythologization of Genius. 20 pgs.
Foss, Hubert J. (ed.) The Heritage of Music. 1927
  1. Wolfgang Mozart. (Essay by Turner, W. J.)
Gallagher, Sean and Kelly, Thomas Forrest. The Century of Bach and Mozart: Perspectives on Historiography, Composition, Theory and Performance. Essays in Honor of Christoph Wolff. 2009.

Geiringer, Karl. The Bach Family: Seven Generations of Creative Genius. 1954.
  1. Various brief mentions throughout, mostly in reference to the sons of J. S.
Gerig, Reginald R. Famous Pianists and Their Technique. 1974.
  1. Chapter, Mozart.
Gjerdingen, Robert. Music in the Galant Style. 2007.
  1. 25. The Child Mozart. 26 pgs.
  2. 26. An Allegro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 9 pgs.
Gordon, David & Gordon, Peter. Musical Visitors to Britain. 2005.
  1.  6. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 15 pgs.
Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School. 1994.
  1. Chapters 7-9. 231 pgs.
Heartz, Daniel. Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven: 1781-1802. 2008.
  1. Chapters 1-3. Mozart. 1781-1791. 289 pgs.
Hinson, Maurice & Roberts, Wesley. The Piano in Chamber Ensemble: An Annotated Guide. 2006.

Hogwood, Christopher. (ed.) The Keyboard in Baroque Europe. 2003.
  1. Part IV, Section 12: Mozart's Non-Metrical Keyboard Preludes. 20 pgs.
Kerman, Joseph. Opera as Drama. 1956.
  1. Chapter 5. Mozart. 29 pgs.
Kerman, Joseph. Opera and the Morbidity of Music. 2008.
  1. Chapter 10. Mozart: Four Biographies. 16 pgs.
  2. Chapter 11. Mozart's Last Year. 8pgs.
  3. Chapter 12. Playing Mozart: The Piano Concertos. 13 pgs.
  4. Chapter 13. The Magic Flute. 13 pgs.
Kierkegaard, Søren. Either/Or. 1843.
  1. Essay: The Immediate Stages of the Erotic, or Musical Erotic. 90 pgs.
Kinderman, William. The Creative Process in Music from Mozart to Kurtag. 2012.

King, A. Hyatt. Musical Pursuits: Selected Essays. 1987.
  1. The Mozarts at the British Museum. 20 pgs.
Kobbe, Gustav. The Loves of Great Composers. 2013.

  1. Mozart and his Constance. 22 pgs.

Landon, H. C. Robbins in Wolf, Eugene K. and Roesner, Edward H. (eds.) Studies in Musical Sources and Style Essays in Honor of Jan Larue. 1990.
  1. Mozart's Mass in C Minor, K.427. 5pgs.
Lebrecht, Norman. A Book of Musical Anecdotes. 1986.
  1. Chapter "Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus"
Levin, David J. Unsettling Opera: Staging Mozart, Verdi, Wagner, and Zemlinsky. 2007.
  1. Chapter 3. Fidelity in Translation: Mozart and Da Ponte's Le nozze di Figaro. 30 pgs.
  2. Chapter 4. Deconstructing Singspiel: Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail. 37 pgs.
Mann, Alfred. The Great Composer As Teacher and Student: Theory and Practice of Composition.
  1. Chapter III. Haydn and Mozart. 21 pgs.
Marissen, Michael. (ed.) Bach Perspectives 3: Creative Responses to Bach from Mozart to Hindemith. 1998.
  1. Bach and Mozart's Artistic Maturity. 33 pgs. (Essay by Marshall, Robert L.)
Newman, William S. The Sonata in the Classical Era. 1983.
  1. Chapter XIV. Mozart. 25 pgs.
Noske, Frits. The Signifier and the Signified: Studies in the Operas of Mozart and Verdi. 1977.

Parry, C. Hubert H. Studies of Great Composers. 1900.
  1. Mozart.
Robinson, Paul A. Operas and Ideas: From Mozart to Strauss. 1985.
  1. Chapter 1: Enlightenment and Reaction. 49 pgs.
Roeder, Michael Thomas. A History of the Concerto. 1994.
  1.  Chapter 9. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 41 pgs.
Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style. 1971.
  1. Chapter 2. The Classical Style. 42 pgs.
  2. Chapter 4. Serious Opera. 19 pgs.
  3. Chapter 5. Mozart. 140 pgs.
Rosen, Charles. Music and the Arts. 2012.
     Part II. Mostly Mozart
  1. Dramatic and Tonal Logic in Mozart's Operas. 13 pgs.
  2. Mozart's Entry into the Twentieth Century. 9 pgs.
  3. The Triumph of Mozart. 7 pgs.
  4. Drama and Figured Bass in Mozart's Concertos. 34 pgs.
  5. Mozart and Posterity. 7 pgs.
  6. Structural Dissonance and the Classical Sonata. 13 pgs.
  7. Tradition without Convention. 35 pgs.
Sadie, Stanley in Johnstone, H. Diack and Fiske, Roger. The Blackwell History of Music in Britain: The Eighteenth Century. 1990.
  1. Music in the Home II, 41 pgs.
Sampson, George. Seven Essays. 1947.

  1. The Operas of Mozart. 25 pgs.

Schonberg, Harold C. The Great Pianists: From Mozart to the Present. 1963.

Schwarm, Betsy. Operatic Insights: Understanding and Enjoying Great Music for the Stage. 2012.

Schwarz, Boris in Atlas, Allan W. (ed.) Music in the Classical Period Essays in Honor of Barry S. Brook. 1995.
  1. Violinists around Mozart, 15 pgs.
Shippen, Katherine B. and Seidlova, Anca. The Heritage of Music.
  1. Chapter 13. Mozart: Poverty and Genius. 11 pgs.
Simon, Henry W. The Festival of Opera. 1957.
Includes Short Plot Summaries of:
  1. Die Entführung aus dem Serail
  2. Così fan tutte
  3. Don Giovanni
  4. Die Zauberflöte
  5. Le nozze di Figaro
Singer, Irving. Mozart and Beethoven: The Concept of Love in Their Operas. 1977.
  1. Chapter 1. Opera and Expression. 21 pgs.
  2. Chapter 2. Mozart: The Conflict in Don Giovanni. 49 pgs.
  3. Chapter 3. Mozart: Figaro, Così, and The Magic Flute. 43 pgs.
Smith, Peter Fox. A Passion For Opera: Learning to Love It: The Greatest Masters, Their Greatest works. 2004.
  1. Chapter 2. Mozart: The Father of Modern Opera. 40 pgs.
Spaethling, Robert. Music and Mozart in the Life of Goethe. 1987.

Steen, Michael. The Lives and Times of the Great Composers. 2003.
  1. Chapter 5. Mozart. 38 pgs.
Steinberg, Michael. Choral Masterworks. 2005.
  1. Mass in C Minor. 7 pgs.
  2. Requiem. 11 pgs.
Steinberg, Michael. The Symphony: A Listener's Guide. 1995.
  1. Symphony No. 35. 1 pg.
  2. Symphony No. 36. 5 pgs.
  3. Symphony No. 38. 4 pgs.
  4. Symphony No. 39. 2 pgs.
  5. Symphony No. 40. 3 pgs.
  6. Symphony No. 41. 6 pgs.
Swain, Joseph P. Harmonic Rhythm: Analysis and Interpretation. 2002.
  1. Part II, Section 12. Mozart: Overture to The Marriage of Figaro. 5 pgs.
Tarasti, Eero. Semiotics of Classical Music: How Mozart, Brahms and Wagner Talk to Us. 2012.

Taruskin, Richard. Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance. 1995.
  1. 10. An Icon For Our Time. 10 pgs.
  2. 11. A Mozart  Wholly Ours. 19 pgs.
  3. 12. Old (New) Instruments, New (Old) Tempos. 6 pgs.
Ulrich, Homer. Chamber Music. 1948.

  1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 30 pgs

Vagliavini, Luigi Ferdinando in Austin, William W. (ed.) New Looks at Italian Opera in Honor of Donald J. Grout. 1968.
  1. Quirino Gasparini and Mozart, 20 pgs.
Tovey, Donald Francis. Essays in Musical Analysis. (Six Volumes.)  1935.
  1. Volume I: Symphonies I: KV.250 (4 pgs.), KV.338 (3 pgs.), KV.543 (4 pgs.), KV.550 (4 pgs.), KV.551 (4 pgs.), KV.497 (3 pgs.)
  2. Volume III: Concertos: KV.414 (3pgs), KV.450 (4 pgs), KV.453 (3.5 pgs.), KV.488 (5.5 pgs.), KV.491 (5 pgs.), KV.313 (1.5 pgs.), KV.314 (3 pgs.), KV.315 (1 pg.), KV.622 (2 pgs.), KV.218 (2 pgs.), KV.219 (3.5 pgs.), KV.261 (1 pg.), KV.299 (3 pgs.)
  3. Volume IV: Illustrative Music: Overture to Der Schauspieldirektor, KV.486, (1 pg.), Overture to Le Nozze di Figaro, KV.492, (1 pg.), Overture to Die Zauberflöte, KV.620, (2 pgs.), Overture to La Clemenza di Tito, KV.621, (1 pg.), Orchestral Dances: Three Minuets KV.601 and Six Waltzes, KV.567  (1pg.), Masonic Dirge, KV.477, (1 pg.)
  4. Volume VI: Supplementary Essays, Glossary, and Index: KV.297 (5 pgs.) KV.384: Aria, "Martern aller arten" (2 pgs.), KV.621: Aria, "Deh per questo istante" (3 pgs.), KV.588: Overture (1 pg.)
Warrack, John. German Opera: From the Beginnings to Wagner. 2006.
  1. Chapter 6. The Viennese Singspiel. 29 pgs.
  2. Chapter 7. Mozart's German Operas. 29 pgs.
Wolff, Christoph. The String Quartets of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: Studies of the Autograph Manuscripts. 1981.

Wolff, Konrad. Masters of the Keyboard, Enlarged Edition: Individual Style Elements in the Piano Music of Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, and Brahms. 1990.
  1. Mozart. 33 pgs.

VIII. Other Mozart

Adolphe, Bruce. Of Mozart, Parrots, Cherry Blossoms in the Wind. 1999.

Burgess, Anthony. On Mozart: A Paean for Wolfgang. 1991.

Cormican, Brendan. Mozart's Death - Mozart's Requiem: An Investigation. 1991.

Davies, Peter J.  Mozart in Person: His Character and Health. 1989.

Du Mont, Mary. The Mozart-Da Ponte Operas: An Annotated Bibliography. 2000.

Farmer, Henry George & Smith, Herbert. New Mozartiana. 1935.

Gruber, Gernot. Mozart and Posterity. 1994.

King, Alec Hyatt. Mozart in Retrospect: Studies in Criticism and Bibliography. 1955.

Leeson, Daniel N. The Mozart Cache: The Discovery and Examination of a Previously Unknown Collection of Mozartiana. 2008.

Maunder, C. Richard F. Mozart's Requiem: On Preparing a New Edition. 1988.

McDonough, Yona Zeldis. Who Was. . . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart? 2003. (Ages 9-12.)

Nottebohm, Gustav. Mozartiana. 1880.

Solman, Joseph. Mozartiana: Two Centuries of Notes, Quotes, and Anecdotes about Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 2002.

Vigeland, Carl. Mostly Mozart Guide to Mozart. 2009.

Woodford, Peggy. Mozart (Illustrated Lives of the Great Composers.) 1990.

IX. On Others in Mozart's Life

Blanning, T. C. W. Joseph II and Enlightened Despotism. 1984.

Bolt, Rodney. The Librettist of Venice: The Remarkable Life of Lorenzo Da Ponte: Mozart's Poet, Casanova's Friend, and Italian Opera's Impresario in America. 2006.

Braunbehrens, Volkmar. Maligned Master: The Real Story of Antonio Salieri. 1992.

Clive, Peter. Mozart and His Circle. 1993.

Da Ponte, Lorenzo. Memoirs. 1823–1827.

Eisen, Cliff. The Symphonies of Leopold Mozart and Their Relationship to the Early Symphonies of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: A Bibliographical and Stylistic Study. 1987-1988.

Gärtner, Heinz. Constanze Mozart: After the Requiem. 1991.

Gärtner, Heinz. John Christian Bach: Mozart's Friend and Mentor. 2003.

Glover, Jane. Mozart's Women: His Family, His Friends, His Music. 2005.

Gordon, David & Gordon, Peter. Musical Visitors to Britain. 2005.

Grant, Kerry. S. Dr. Burney as Critic and Historian of Music. 1983.

Halliwell, Ruth. The Mozart Family: Four Lives in a Social Context. 1998.

Hodges, Sheila. Lorenzo Da Ponte: The Life and Times of Mozart's Librettist. 2002.

Holden, Anthony. The Man Who Wrote Mozart: The Extraordinary Life of Lorenzo Da Ponte. 2005.

Honolka, Kurt. Papageno: Emanuel Schikaneder: Man of the Theater in Mozart's Time. 1990.

Moser, Nancy. Mozart's Sister. 2006.

Rice, John A. Antonio Salieri and Viennese Opera. 1999.

Schwerin, Erna. Constanze Mozart: Woman and Wife of A Genius. 1981.

Selby, Agnes. Constanze: Mozart’s Beloved. 1999.

X. Compilations of Primary Sources

Anderson, Emily. (ed.) The Letters of Mozart and His Family. 1938. (Chronologically arranged, translated and edited with an introduction, notes, indices, and extracts from the letters of Constanze Mozart to Johann Anton André. Translated and edited by C. B. Oldman in three volumes.)

Deutsch, Otto Erich. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. 1965.

Irving, John. The Treasures of Mozart. 2012.

Jansen, Johannes. Mozart. 1999. (A book of pictures.)

Kerst, Friedrich. Mozart as Revealed in His Own Words. 1905.

Link, Dorothea. The National Court Theatre in Mozart's Vienna: Sources and Documents 1783-1792. 1998.

Mersmann, Hans. (ed., trans.) [W.A. Mozart] Letters. 1928.

Spaethling, Robert. Mozart's Letters, Mozart's Life. 2000.

Tyson, Alan and Rosenthal, Albi. Mozart's Thematic Catalogue: A Facsimile. 1990.

Neue Mozart Ausgabe Online: The complete editions of Mozart's work, including all the sheet music and critical apparatuses.  [Link]

Köchel-Verzeichnis Online: The complete, chronological listing of Mozart's work. [Link]

XI. Other: 18th Century Culture, Thought, Music, Et Cetera

Atlas, Allan W. (ed.) Music in the Classical Period Essays in Honor of Barry S. Brook. 1995.

Bauman, Thomas. North German Opera in the Age of Goethe. 1985.

Blume, Friedrich. Classic and Romantic Music: A Comprehensive Survey. 1970.

Brandenburg, Sieghard. Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: Studies in the Music of the Classical Period: Essays in Honour of Alan Tyson. 1999.

Braunbehrens, Volkmar. Mozart in Vienna: 1781-1791. 1986.

Brown, Clive. Classical and Romantic Performing Practice 1750-1900. 1999.

Brown, Howard Mayer and Sadie, Stanley. (eds.) Performance Practice: Music After 1600. 1989.

Buchner, Alexander. Mozart and Prague. 1962.

Burney, Charles. The Present State of Music in France and Italy. 1771.

Caplin, William E. Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 1998.

DelDonna, Anthony R. and Polzonetti, Pierpaolo (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to Eighteenth-Century Opera. 2009.

Derek, Beales. Enlightenment and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Europe. 2005.

Donington, Robert. Opera and Its Symbols: The Unity of Words, Music, and Staging. 1990.

Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 1992.

Eisen, Cliff. Orchestral Music in Salzburg, 1750-1780, Recent Researches in the Music of the Classical Era. 1994.

Fiske, Rogert. English Theatre Music in the Eighteenth Century. 1987.

Ford, Charles. Music, Sexuality and the Enlightenment in Mozart's Figaro, Don Giovanni and Cosi Fan Tutte. 2012.

Gjerdingen, Robert. Music in the Galant Style. 2007.

Gordon, David & Gordon, Peter. Musical Visitors to Britain. 2005.

Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School. 1994.

Heartz, Daniel. Music in European Capitals: The Galant Style, 1720-1780. 2003.

Henderson, W. J. The Orchestra and Orchestral Music. 1899.

Hepokoski, James & Darcy, Warren. Elements of Sonata Theory. 2006.

Hunter, Mary. The Culture of Opera Buffa in Mozart's Vienna. 1999.

Jones, David Wyn. (ed.) Music in Eighteenth-Century Austria. 2006.

Johnstone, H. Diack and Fiske, Roger. The Blackwell History of Music in Britain: The Eighteenth Century. 1990.

Keefe, Simon P. Mozart's Piano Concertos: Dramatic Dialogue in the Age of Enlightenment. 2001.

Kirkendale, Warren. Fugue and Fugato in Rococo and Classical Chamber Music. 1979.

Link, Dorothea. The National Court Theatre in Mozart's Vienna: Sources and Documents 1783-1792. 1998.

MacIntyre, Bruce C. The Viennese Concerted Mass of the Early Classical Period. 1986.

Maunder, Richard. Keyboard Instruments in Eighteenth-Century Vienna. 1998.

McVeigh, Simon. Concert Life in London from Mozart to Haydn. Cambridge University Press. 2006.

Morrow, Mary Sue. Concert Life in Haydn's Vienna: Aspects of a Developing Musical and Social Institution. 1989.

Morrow, Mary Sue. German Music Criticism in the Late Eighteenth Century: Aesthetic Issues in Instrumental Music. 1989.

Nelson, David. Vienna for the Music Lover: The Complete Guide to Vienna's Musical Sites and Performances Today. 2009.

Newman, William S. The Sonata in the Classic Era. 1983.

Pestelli, Giorgio. The Age of Mozart and Beethoven. 1984.

Ratner, Leonard G. Classic Music: Expression, Form and Style. 1980.

Roeder, Michael Thomas. A History of the Concerto. 1994.

Rosenblum, Sandra P. Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music: Their Principles and Applications

Rothschild, Fritz. Musical Performance in the Times of Mozart and Beethoven. 1961.

Schenk, Erich. Mozart and His Times. 1955.

Scherer, F. M. Quarter Notes and Bank Notes: The Economics of Music Composition in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 2003.

Scholes, Percy. Dr. Burney's Musical Tours in Europe. 1959.

Sisman, Elaine R. Haydn and the Classical Variation. 1993.

Spaethling, Robert. Music and Mozart in the Life of Goethe. 1987.

Steblin, Rita. History of Key Characteristics in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries. 1983.

Tapié, Victor L. The Rise and Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy. 1969.

Taruskin, Richard. Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance. 1995.

Whitmore, Philip. Unpremeditated Art: The Cadenza in the Classical Keyboard Concerto. 1991.

Zaslaw, Neal. (ed.) The Classical Era: From the 1740s to the End of the 18th Century. 1989.

XII. Articles

Allanbrook, Wye J. & Hilton, Wendy. Dance Rhythms in Mozart's Arias. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 1, Performing Mozart's Music II (Feb., 1992), pp. 142-149

Allanbrook, Wye J. Metric Gesture as a Topic in "Le Nozze di Figaro" and "Don Giovanni". The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Jan., 1981), pp. 94-112

Allanbrook, Wye J. Pro marcellina: The Shape of 'Figaro', Act IV. Music & Letters, Vol. 63, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Apr., 1982), pp. 69-84

Anderson, Robert. Haydn and Mozart. The Musical Times, Vol. 126, No. 1711 (Sep., 1985), p. 539

Arthur, John and Schachter, Carl. Mozart's "Das Veilchen" The Musical Times, Vol. 130, No. 1753 (Mar., 1989), pp. 149-155+163-164

Badura-Skoda, Paul. Mozart without the Pedal? The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 55 (Apr., 2002), pp. 332-350

Baker, Jack. Elgar and Mozart's G Minor Symphony. The Musical Times, Vol. 76, No. 1114 (Dec., 1935), pp. 1123-1124

Balthazar, Scott. L. Tonal and Motivic Process in Mozart's Expositions. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 421-466

Barshack, Lior. The Sovereignty of Pleasure: Sexual and Political Freedom in the Operas of Mozart and Da Ponte. Law and Literature, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring 2008), pp. 47-67

Barth, George. Mozart Performance in the 19th Century. Early Music, Vol. 19, No. 4, Performing Mozart's Music I (Nov., 1991), pp. 538-555

Batley, E. M. Emanuel Schikaneder: The Librettist of 'Die Zauberflöte'. Music & Letters, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Jul., 1965), pp. 231-236

Bauman, Thomas. Mozart's Belmonte. Early Music, Vol. 19, No. 4, Performing Mozart's Music I (Nov., 1991), pp. 556-563

Bauman, Thomas. Requiem, but No Piece. 19th-Century Music, Vol. 15, No. 2, Toward Mozart (Autumn, 1991), pp. 151-161

Benade, Arthur H. Woodwinds: The Evolutionary Path Since 1700. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 47 (Mar., 1994), pp. 63-110

Bilson, Malcolm & Tassel, Eric van. Interpreting Mozart. Early Music, Vol. 12, No. 4, The Early Piano I (Nov., 1984), pp. 519-522

Blume, Friedrich & Broder, Nathan. Requiem but No Peace. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 1961), pp. 147-169

Bonds, Mark Evan. Replacing Haydn: Mozart's ‘Pleyel’ Quartets. Music and Letters (2007) 88 (2): 201-225.

Broder, Nathan. The First Guide to Mozart. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Apr., 1956), pp. 223-229

Broder, Nathan. Mozart and the "Clavier." The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct., 1941), pp. 422-432

Broder, Nathan. The Wind-Instruments in Mozart's Symphonies. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Jul., 1933), pp. 238-259

Brofsky, Howard. Doctor Burney and Padre Martini: Writing a General History of Music. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Jul., 1979), pp. 313-345

Brook, Peter & Laurent, Feneyrou & Sidgwick, John. A Conversation: Peter Brook on Mozart's Don Giovanni. Grand Street, No. 66, Secrets (Fall, 1998), pp. 17-31

Brown, Peter. Haydn and Mozart's 1773 Stay in Vienna: Weeding a Musicological Garden.

Brown, A. Peter. Notes on Some Eighteenth-Century Viennese Copyists. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 325-338

Brown, Bruce Allen & Rice, John A. Salieri's 'Cosi fan tutte.' Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 17-43

Buch, David J. Fairy-Tale Literature and "Die Zauberflöte". Acta Musicologica, Vol. 64, Fasc. 1 (Jan. - Jun., 1992), pp. 30-49

Buch, David J. Die Zauberflöte, Masonic Opera, and Other Fairy Tales. Acta Musicologica, [Vol.] 76, [Fasc.] 2 (2004), pp. 193-219

Branscombe, Peter. Die Zauberflöte: Some Textual and Interpretative Problems. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 92nd Sess. (1965 - 1966), pp. 45-63

Brown, Marshall. Mozart, Bach, and Musical Abjection. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 4 (Winter, 1999), pp. 509-535

Brunswick, Mark. Beethoven's Tribute to Mozart in "Fidelio". The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1. (Jan., 1945), pp. 29-32.

Caplin, William E. The Classical Cadence: Conceptions and Misconceptions. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 51- 117

Cavett-Dunsby, Esther. Mozart's Codas. Music Analysis, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 31-51

Cavett-Dunsby, Esther. Mozart's 'Haydn' Quartets: Composing up and down without Rules. Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Vol. 113, No. 1 (1988), pp. 57-80

Chapin, Keith. Strict and Free Reversed: The Law of Counterpoint in Koch’s Musikalisches Lexikon and Mozart’s Dauberflöte. Eighteenth-Century Music 3/1, 91–107

Chestnut, John Hind. Mozart's Teaching of Intonation. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Summer, 1977), pp. 254-271

Churgin, Bathia. Beethoven and Mozart's Requiem: A New Connection. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 457-477

Clarke, Bruce Cooper. Albert von Mölk: Mozart Myth-Maker? Study of an 18th Century Correspondence. MJb 1995, 155-91

Clive, Geoffrey. The Demonic in Mozart. Music & Letters, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Jan., 1956), pp. 1-13

Cohn, Richard. Metric and Hypermetric Dissonance in the Menuetto of Mozart's Symphony in G Minor, K. 550. Intégral, Vol. 6 (1992), pp. 1-33

Corneilson, Paul. An Intimate Vocal Portrait of Dorothea Wendling: Mozart's "Basta, vincesti. . . Ah non lasciarmi, no" K.295a. MJb 2000

Cuming, Geoffrey. Mozart's Oboe Concerto for Ferlendis. Music & Letters, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Jan., 1940), pp. 18-22

Davies, Peter J. Mozart's Illnesses and Death - 1. The Illnesses, 1756 - 90. The Musical Times, Vol. 125, No. 1698 (Aug., 1984), pp. 437-442

Davies, Peter J. Mozart's Illnesses and Death - 2. The Last Year and the Fatal Illness. The Musical Times, Vol. 125, No. 1700 (Oct., 1984), pp. 554-557+559-561

Davies, Peter. Mozart's Manic-Depressive Tendencies. 2. The Musical Times, Vol. 128, No. 1730 (Apr., 1987), pp. 191+193-196

Deutsch, O. E. Count Deym and His Mechanical Organs. Music & Letters, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Apr., 1948), pp. 140-145

Donington, Robert. Don Giovanni Goes to Hell. The Musical Times, Vol. 122, No. 1661 (Jul., 1981), pp. 446-448

Dreyfus, Laurence. The Hermeneutics of Lament: A Neglected Paradigm in a Mozartian 'Trauermusik'. Music Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 3. (Oct., 1991), pp. 329-343.

Dreyfus, Laurence. Mozart as Early Music: A Romantic Antidote. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Performing Mozart's Music III (May, 1992), pp. 297- 298+300-303+305-306+308-309

Durante, Sergio. The Chronology of Mozart's 'La clemenza di Tito' Reconsidered. Music & Letters, Vol. 80, No. 4 (Nov., 1999), pp. 560-594

Durante, Sergio. Considerations on Mozart's Changing Approach to Recitatives and on Other Choices of Dramaturgical Significance. MJb 2001, 231-44

Ebisawa, Bin. The Requiem: Mirror of Mozart Performance History. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Performing Mozart's Music III (May, 1992), pp. 279- 283+285-286+289-294

Edgar, Clifford B. Mozart's Early Efforts in Opera. Proceedings of the Musical Association, 32nd Sess. (1905 - 1906), pp. 45-58

Edge, Dexter. Attributing Mozart (i): Three Accompanied Recitatives. Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Nov., 2001), pp. 197-237

Edge, Dexter. Mozart's Fee for 'Così fan tutte'. Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Vol. 116, No. 2 (1991), pp. 211-235

Edge, Dexter. Mozart's Viennese Orchestras. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 1, Performing Mozart's Music II (Feb., 1992), pp. 63-65+67- 69+71-88

Einstein, Alfred. Two Missing Sonatas by Mozart. Music & Letters, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Jan., 1940), pp. 1-17

Einsten, Alfred & Mendel, Arthur. Mozart's Choice of Keys. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct., 1941), pp. 415-421

Eisen, Cliff. Another Look at the 'Corrupt Passage' in Mozart's G Minor Symphony, K550: Its Sources, 'Solution' and Implications for the Composition of the Final Trilogy. Early Music, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Aug., 1997), pp. 373-380

Eisen, Cliff. Contributions to a New Mozart Documentary Biography. Journal of the American Musicological Society, xxxix (1986), 620-23

Eisen, Cliff. Mozart Apocrypha. Musical  Times, cxxvii (1986), 685

Eisen, Cliff. Mozart's Salzburg Orchestras. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 1, Performing Mozart's Music II (Feb., 1992), pp. 89-90+93- 96+98-100+103

Eisen, Cliff & Wintle, Christopher. Mozart's C Minor Fantasy, K.475: An Editorial 'Problem' and Its Analytical and Critical Consequences. Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Vol. 124, No. 1 (1999), pp. 26-52

Eisen, Cliff. The Old and New Mozart Editions. Early Music, Vol. 19, No. 4, Performing Mozart's Music I (Nov., 1991), pp. 513-532

Englander, Richard & Mendel, Arthur. The Sketches for "The Magic Flute" at Upsala. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jul., 1941), pp. 343-355

Ferguson, Faye. The Classical Keyboard Concerto: Some Thoughts on Authentic Performance. Early Music, Vol. 12, No. 4, The Early Piano I (Nov., 1984), pp. 437-445

Fitzpatrick, Horace. Some Historical Notes on the Horn in Germany and Austria. The Galpin Society Journal. Vol. 16 (May, 1963), pp. 33-48

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Heartz, Daniel. The Great Quartet in Mozart's Idomeneo. Music Forum, v (1980), 233-56

Heartz, Daniel. La clemenza di Sarastro. Masonic Benevolence in Mozart's Last Operas. The Musical Times, Vol. 124, No. 1681 (Mar., 1983), pp. 152-157

Heartz, Daniel. Mozart, His Father and 'Idomeneo.' The Musical Times
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Heartz, Daniel. Tonality and Motif in Idomeneo. Musical Times, cxv (1974), 382-6

Hellyer, Roger. The Transcriptions for 'Harmonie' of 'Die Entführung aus dem Serail'. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, Vol. 102 (1975 - 1976), pp. 53-66

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Holmes, E. Mozart's Masses (In Continuation). The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Vol. 5, No. 106 (Mar. 1, 1853), pp. 147- 149

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Hutchings, Arthur. Viennese Counterpoint. The Musical Times, Vol. 83, No. 1194 (Aug., 1942), pp. 237-239

Irving, John. Haydn's Influence on Mozart's Sonatas, K. 279-84: Fact or Fiction? Revue belge de Musicologie / Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Muziekwetenschap, Vol. 53 (1999), pp. 137-150

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Kamien, Roger & Wagner, Naphtali. Bridge Themes within a Chromaticized Voice Exchange in Mozart Expositions. Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring, 1997), pp. 1-12

Kearns, Andrew. The Orchestral Serenade in Eighteenth-Century Salzburg. Journal of Musicological Research, xvi (1997), 163-97

Keefe, Simon P. A Complementary Pair: Stylistic Experimentation in Mozart's Final Piano Concertos, K.537 in D and K.595 in B♭. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 658-684

Keefe, Simon P. Dramatic Dialogue in Mozart's Viennese Piano Concertos: A Study of Competition and Cooperation in Three First Movements. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 169-204

Keefe, Simon P. The 'Jupiter' Symphony in C, K. 551: New Perspectives on the Dramatic Finale and Its Stylistic Significance in Mozart's Orchestral Œuvre. Acta Musicologica, [Vol.] 75, [Fasc.] 1 (2003), pp. 17-43

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Keller, Hans. Mozart's Wrong Key Signature. Tempo, New Series, No. 98 (1972), pp. 21-27

Kinderman, William. Subjectivity and Objectivity in Mozart Performance. Early Music, Vol. 19, No. 4, Performing Mozart's Music I (Nov., 1991), pp. 593-600

King, A. Hyatt. A Census of Mozart Musical Autographs in England. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Oct., 1952), pp. 566-580

King, A. Hyatt. The Melodic Sources and Affinities of "Die Zauberflöte." The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Apr., 1950), pp. 241-258

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart. The Musical Times, Vol. 128, No. 1728 (Feb., 1987), p. 90

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart's Counterpoint: Its Growth and Significance. Music & Letters, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan., 1945), pp. 12-20

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart and Cramer. The Facsimile of a Lost Autograph. The Musical Times, Vol. 89, No. 1259 (Jan., 1948), pp. 11-14

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart on the Gramophone. Music & Letters, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Jan., 1956), pp. 22-26

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart's "Prussian" Quartets in Relation to His Late Style. Music & Letters, Vol. 21, No. 4 (Oct., 1940), pp. 328-346

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart and the Organ. The Musical Times, Vol. 87, No. 1236 (Feb., 1946), pp. 41-43

King, A. Hyatt. Mozart's Works for Mechanical Organ: Their Background and Significance. The Musical Times, Vol. 88, No. 1247 (Jan., 1947), pp. 11-14

King, A. Hyatt. Some Aspects of Recent Mozart Research. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, Vol. 100 (1973 - 1974), pp. 1-18

King, Alexander. The Fragmentary Works of Mozart. The Musical Times, Vol. 81, No. 1172 (Oct., 1940), pp. 401-403

Kirkendale, Warren. More Slow Introductions by Mozart to Fugues of J. S. Bach?. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring, 1964), pp. 43-65

Kivy, Peter. Child Mozart as an Aesthetic Symbol. Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 28, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1967), pp. 249-258.

Kurz, Otto. Hagenauer, Posch, and Mozart. The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 110, No. 783 (Jun., 1968), pp. 325-329

Latcham, Michael. Mozart and the Pianos of Gabriel Anton Walter. Early Music, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Aug., 1997), pp. 382-400

Lawson, Colin. The Basset Clarinet Revived. Early Music, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Nov., 1987), pp. 487-501

Leeson, Daniel N. & Whitwell, David. Mozart's Thematic Catalogue. The Musical Times, Vol. 114, No. 1566 (Aug., 1973), pp. 781-783

Leeson, Daniel. N. & Whitwell, David. Mozart's 'Spurious' Wind Octets. Music & Letters, Vol. 53, No. 4 (Oct., 1972), pp. 377-399

Leeson, Daniel N. & Levin, Robert D. On the Authenticity of K. Anh. C14.01 (297b), a Symphonia Concertante for Four Winds and Orchestra. MJb 1976-7, 70-96

Leeson, Daniel N. A Revisit: Mozart's Serenade for Thirteen Instruments, K.361 (370a), the "Gran Partitta." MJb 1997, 181-223

Levin, Robert D. Improvised Embellishments in Mozart's Keyboard Music. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Performing Mozart's Music III (May, 1992), pp. 221-233

Levin, Robert D. Improvising Mozart. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 55, No. 2 (Winter, 2002), pp. 87-90

Link, Dorothea. The Fandango Scene in Mozart's 'Le nozze di Figaro.' Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 133: 1, 69 — 92

Link, Dorothea. A Newly Discovered Accompanied Recitative to Mozart's 'Vado, ma dove', K.583. Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 29-50

Link, Dorothea. The Viennese Operatic Canon and Mozart’s Così fan tutte. Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum, 38 (1990), 111–21

Lobe, J. C. The Overture to Mozart's "Don Giovanni." The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Vol. 15, No. 345 (Nov. 1, 1871), pp. 265- 267

Loft, Abram. The Comic Servant in Mozart's Operas.

Lourie, Arthur & Pring, S. W. Variations on Mozart. Music & Letters, Vol. 11, No. 1. (Jan., 1930), pp. 17-33.

Lowinsky, Edward E. On Mozart's Rhythm. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Apr., 1956), pp. 162-186

Lustig, Roger. On the Flute Quartet, K.285b (Anh.171.) MJb 1997, 157-79

Malloch, William. Bach and the French Ouverture. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 2 (Summer, 1991), pp. 174-197

Mansfield, Orlando A. Mozart's Organ Sonatas. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct., 1922), pp. 566-594

Maunder, Richard. Mozart's Keyboard Instruments. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Performing Mozart's Music III (May, 1992), pp. 207+209- 212+214-219

Maunder, Richard & Rowland, David. Mozart's Pedal Piano.  Early Music, Vol. 23, No. 2 (May, 1995), pp. 287-296

Maunder, Richard. Mozart's Requiem. Early Music, Vol. 15, No. 3, Lully Anniversary Issue (Aug., 1987), p. 446

McKee, Eric. Mozart in the Ballroom: Minuet-Trio Contrast and the Aristocracy in Self-Portrait. Music Analysis, 24/iii (2005)

McN, W. Mozart's Piano Concertos. The Musical Times, Vol. 89, No. 1263 (May, 1948), pp. 137-139

McVeigh, Simon. The Professional Concert and Rival Subscription Series in London, 1783-1793. Royal Musical Association Research Chronicle, No. 22 (1989), pp. 1-135

Melamed, Daniel R. Counterpoint in Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail. Cambridge Opera Journal, 20, 1, 25–51

Meyer, Leonard B. Grammatical Simplicity and Relational Richness: The Trio of Mozart's G Minor Symphony. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Summer, 1976), pp. 693-761

Middleton, Hubert. Mozart's Piano Concerto in A Major (K. V. 488). The Musical Times, Vol. 80, No. 1154 (Apr., 1939), pp. 287-289

Mieder, Wolfgang. "Now I Sit like a Rabbit in the Pepper": Proverbial Language in the Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Journal of Folklore Research, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jan. - Apr., 2003), pp. 33-70

Mirka, Danuta. The Cadence of Mozart's Cadenzas. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Spring, 2005), pp. 292-325

Moreno, Jairo. Subjectivity, Interpretation, and Irony in Gottfried Weber's Analysis of Mozart's "Dissonance" Quartet. Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Spring, 2003), pp. 99-120

Morrow, Mary Sue. Mozart and Viennese Concert Life. The Musical Times, Vol. 126, No. 1710 (Aug., 1985), pp. 453-454

Moseley, Paul. Mozart's Requiem: A Revaluation of the Evidence.  Journal of the Royal Musical Association, Vol. 114, No. 2 (1989), pp. 203-237

Heartz, Daniel. Mozart and Da Ponte. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 4 (Winter, 1995), pp. 700-718

Nettl, Paul & Mendel, Arthur. Mozart and the Czechs. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jul., 1941), pp. 329-342

Nicolosi, Robert. J. The "Tempo di Minuetto" Aria in Mozart's Operas. College Music Symposium, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring, 1983), pp. 97-123

Oldman, C. B. Mozart's Violin Concerto in E Flat. Music & Letters, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Apr., 1931), pp. 174-183

O'Loughlin, Niall. Mozart Clarinet Quartets. The Musical Times, Vol. 128, No. 1731 (May, 1987), p. 278

Oldman, Cecil B. Beckford and Mozart. Music and Letters, xlvii (1966), 110-15.

Oldman, Cecil B. Charles Burney and Louis de Visme. Music Review, xxvii (1966), 95-96

Oldman, Cecil B. Dr. Burney and Mozart. MJb 1962-63, 75-81 and MJb 1964, 109-110

Oldman, Cecil. B. Mozart and Modern Research. Proceedings of the Musical Association, 58th Sess. (1931 - 1932), pp. 43-66

Oldman, Cecil. B. Mozart's Scena for Tenducci. Music and Letters, xlii (1961), 44-52

Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G. Ornamentation in Mechanical Music. Early Music, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Apr., 1983), pp. 185-193

Orr, N. Lee. The Effect of Scoring on the "Sonata-Form" in Mozart's Mature Instrumental Ensembles. College Music Symposium, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Fall, 1983), pp. 46-83

Neumann, Frederick. Dots and Strokes in Mozart. Early Music, Vol. 21, No. 3, French Baroque II (Aug., 1993), pp. 429-435

Perl, Benjamin. Mozart in Turkey. Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Nov., 2000), pp. 219-235

Pesic, Peter. The Child and the Daemon: Mozart and Deep Play. 19th-Century Music, Vol. 25, No. 2/3, The Long Century, 1780-1920 (Autumn, 2001 - Spring, 2002), pp. 91-107

Platoff, John. The Buffa Aria in Mozart's Vienna. Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jul., 1990), pp. 99-120

Platoff, John. How Original Was Mozart? Evidence from "Opera buffa." Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 1, Performing Mozart's Music II (Feb., 1992), pp. 105-117

Platoff, John. Musical and Dramatic Structure in the Opera Buffa Finale. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 7, No. 2 (Spring, 1989), pp. 191-230

Polzonetti, Pierpaolo. Mesmerizing Adultery: "Così fan tutte" and the Kornman Scandal. Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Nov., 2002), pp. 263-296

Portowitz, Adena. Art and Taste in Mozart's Sonata-Rondo Finales: Two Case Studies. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 18, No. 1, A Musicological Bouquet: Essays on Style, Sources, and Performance in Honor of Bathia Churgin (Winter, 2001), pp. 129-149

Price, Curtis. Italian Opera and Arson in Late Eighteenth-Century London. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Spring, 1989), pp. 55- 107

Prod'homme J. G. & Baker, Thodore. A Musical Map of Paris. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Oct., 1932), pp. 608-627

Pryer, Anthony. Mozart's Operatic Audition: The Milan Concert. Eighteenth-Century Music, ii (2005)

Raeburn, Michael. Dr. Burney, Mozart and Crotch. The Musical Times. Vol. 97, No. 1364 (Oct., 1956), pp. 519-520

Ratner, Leonard G. Mozart's Parting Gifts. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 18, No. 1, A Musicological Bouquet: Essays on Style, Sources, and Performance in Honor of Bathia Churgin (Winter, 2001), pp. 189-211

Rice, Albert R. The Clarinette d'Amour and Basset Horn. The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 39 (Sep., 1986), pp. 97-111

Rice, Albert R. Mozart's Divertimento, K. 113. Music & Letters, Vol. 74, No. 3 (Aug., 1993), pp. 485-487

Rice, John A. Adding Birds to Mozart's "Sparrow Mass." Mozart Society of America Newsletter, vii/2 (2004), 8-9

Richards, Annette. Automatic Genius: Mozart and the Mechanical Sublime. Music & Letters, Vol. 80, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 366-389

Ridgewell, Rupert. Mozart's Publishing Plans with Artaria in 1787: New Archival Evidence. Music & LettersVol. 83, No. 1 (Feb., 2002), pp. 30-74

Riggs, Robert. Mozart's Notation of Staccato Articulation: A New Appraisal. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Spring, 1997), pp. 230-277

Ringer, A. Mozart and the Josephian Era: some Socio-Economic Notes on Musical Change. CMc, no. 9 (1969), 158-65

Rosenthal, Karl August & Mendel, Arthur. Mozart's Sacramental Litanies and Their Forerunners. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct., 1941), pp. 433-455

Rosow, Lois. Idomeno and Idomenée: The French Disconnection. paper read at the American Musicological Society, Chicago, 1991

Rossi, Nick. The Land of Mozart Revisited: A Musical Pilgrimage. Music Educators Journal, Vol. 54, No. 8 (Apr., 1968), pp. 75-79

Rumph, Stephen. Mozart’s Archaic Endings: A Linguistic Critique. Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 130 (2005), 159–96

Rushton, Julian. La vittima è Idamante. Did Mozart have a Motive? Cambridge Opera Journal, iii (1991), 1-21

Sadie, Stanley. Mozart, Bach, and Counterpoint. The Musical Times, Vol. 105, No. 1451 (Jan., 1964), pp. 23-24

Sadie, Stanley. Mozart's 'Betulia liberata.' The Musical Times, Vol. 109, No. 1509 (Nov., 1968), pp. 1015-1017

Sadie, Stanley. Mozart and His "Lucio Silla." The Musical Times, Vol. 108, No. 1489 (Mar., 1967), pp. 216-220

Sartori, Claudio & D'Accone, Frank A. Mozart in Brescia. Music & Letters, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 1966), pp. 141-148

Schmid, Ernst Fritz & Sanders, Ernest. Mozart and Haydn. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Apr., 1956), pp. 145-161

Seidlin, Oskar. Goethes Zauberflöte. Monatshefte für deutschen Unterricht, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Feb., 1943), pp. 49-61

Simon, Edwin J. Sonata into Concerto. A Study of Mozart's First Seven Concertos. Acta Musicologica, Vol. 31, Fasc. 3/4 (Jul. - Dec., 1959), pp. 170-185

Slonimsky, Nicolas. The Weather at Mozart's Funeral. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan., 1960), pp. 12-21

Somfami, László. Mozart's First Thoughts: The Two Version of the Sonata in D major, K284. Early Music, xix (1991), 601-13

Smithers, Don. L. Mozart's Orchestral Brass. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Performing Mozart's Music III (May, 1992), pp. 254- 256+258-259+261-265

Smyth, David. "Balanced Interruption" and the Formal Repeat. Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Spring, 1993), pp. 76-88

Spitzer, J. & Zaslaw, N. Improvized Ornamentation in Eighteenth-Century Orchestras. JAMS, xxxix (1986), 524-77

Statham, H. Heathcote. Mozart as a Pianoforte Composer. The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Vol. 20, No. 439 (Sep. 1, 1879), pp. 465- 468

Steptoe, Andrew. Mozart and Poverty: A Re-Examination of the Evidence. The Musical Times, Vol. 125, No. 1694 (Apr., 1984), pp. 196-201

Steptoe, Andrew. The Sources of 'Così fan tutte': A Reappraisal. Music & Letters, Vol. 62, No. 3/4 (Jul. - Oct., 1981), pp. 281-294

St. Foix, Georges de St. & King, Ottomar. Mozart and the Young Beethoven. The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Apr., 1920), pp. 276-295
Temperley, Nicholas. Mozart's Influence on English Music. Music & Letters, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Oct., 1961), pp. 307-318

Temperley, Nicholas. Mozart's Influence on English Music. Music & Letters, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Oct., 1961), pp. 307-318

Thomson, Katharine. Mozart and Freemasonry. Music & Letters, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 1976), pp. 25-46

Tomita, Yo. Bach Reception in Pre-Classical Vienna: Baron van Swieten's Circle Edits the 'Well-Tempered Clavier' II. Music & Letters, Vol. 81, No. 3 (Aug., 2000), pp. 364-391

Tyler, Linda. Aria as Drama: A Sketch from Mozart's "DerSchaulspieldirektor." Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 2 No. 3 (Nov., 1990), pp. 251-267

Tyler, Linda. Bastien und Bastienne: The Libretto, Its Derivation, and Mozart's Text-Setting. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Autumn, 1990), pp. 520-552

Tyler, Linda. 'Zaide' in the Development of Mozart's Operatic Language. Music & Letters, Vol. 72, No. 2 (May, 1991), pp. 214-235 Published by: Oxford University Press

Tyson, Alan. The Earliest Editions of Mozart's Duet-Sonata K.19d. Music Review, xxx (1969), 98-105

Tyson, Alan. Notes on the Composition of Mozart's 'Così fan tutte.' Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Summer, 1984), pp. 356-401

Tyson, Alan. The Mozart Fragments in the Mozarteum, Salzburg: A Preliminary Study of Their Chronology and Their Significance. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Autumn, 1981), pp. 471-510

Tyson, Alan. A Reconstruction of Nannerl Mozart's Music Book (Notenbuch). Music & Letters, Vol. 60, No. 4 (Oct., 1979), pp. 389-400

Tyson, Alan. Two Mozart Puzzles: Can Anyone Solve Them? The Musical Times, Vol. 129, No. 1741 (Mar., 1988), pp. 126-127

Ullrich, Hermann. Maria Theresia Paradis and Mozart.

Walls, Peter. Mozart and the Violin. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 1, Performing Mozart's Music II (Feb., 1992), pp. 7-24+26+28- 29

Ward, Martha Kingdon Ward. Mozart and the Bassoon. Music & Letters, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Jan., 1949), pp. 8-25

Ward, Martha Kingdon. Mozart and the Clarinet. Music & Letters, Vol. 28, No. 2 (Apr., 1947), pp. 126-153

Ward, Martha Kingdon. Mozart and the Flute. Music & Letters, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Oct., 1954), pp. 294-308

Ward, Martha Kingdon. Mozart and the Horn. Music & Letters, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Oct., 1950), pp. 318-332

Watson, J. Arthur. Beethoven's Debt to Mozart. Music & Letters, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1937), pp. 248-258

Watson, J. Arthur. Mozart and the Viola. Music & Letters, Vol. 22, No. 1, (Jan., 1941), pp. 41-53

Webster, James. Review: Mozart's Operas and the Myth of Musical Unity. Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jul., 1990), pp. 197-218

Webster, James. Towards a History of Viennese Chamber Music in the Early Classical Period. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1974), pp. 212-247

Webster, James. Violoncello and Double Bass in the Chamber Music of Haydn and His Viennese Contemporaries, 1750-1780. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Autumn, 1976), pp. 413-438 (See also a correction to this article in Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Spring, 1978), p. 178)

Whewell, Michael. Mozart's Bassethorn Trios. The Musical Times, Vol. 103, No. 1427 (Jan., 1962), p. 19

Williams, Abdy & Ratner, Mozart G. The Rondo Form, as It Is Found in the Works of Mozart and Beethoven.

Winter, Robert S. The Bifocal Close and the Evolution of the Viennese Classical Style. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Summer, 1989), pp. 275 -337

Winternitz, Emanuel. Gnagflow Trazom: An Essay on Mozart's Script, Pastimes, and Nonsense Letters. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 11, No. 2/3 (Summer - Autumn, 1958), pp. 200-216

Wolf, Eugene K. The Rediscovered Autograph of Mozart's Fantasy and Sonata in C Minor, K. 475/457. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Winter, 1992), pp. 3-47

Woodfield, Ian. John Bland: London Retailer of the Music of Haydn and Mozart. Music & Letters, Vol. 81, No. 2 (May, 2000), pp. 210-244

Wollenberg, Susan. The Jupiter Theme: New Light on Its Creation. The Musical Times, Vol. 116, No. 1591 (Sep., 1975), pp. 781-783 Published by: Musical Times Publications Ltd.

Woodfield, Ian. Mozart's 'Jupiter': A Symphony of Light? The Musical Times, Vol. 147, No. 1897 (Winter, 2006), pp. 25-46

Woodfield, Ian. New Light on the Mozarts' London visit: A Private Concert with Manzuoli. Music and Letters, lxvii (1995), 187-207

Yudkin, Jeremy. Beethoven's "Mozart" Quartet. Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Spring, 1992), pp. 30-74

Zaslaw, Neal. Mozart, Haydn and the Sinfonia da Chiesa. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1982), pp. 95-124

Zaslaw, Neal & Eisen, Cliff. Signor Mozart's Symphony in a Minor, K. Anhang 220 = 16a. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Spring, 1985 - Spring, 1986), pp. 191-206

Zaslaw, Neal. Mozart's Orchestras: Applying Historical Knowledge to Modern Performances. Early Music, Vol. 20, No. 2, Performing Mozart's Music III (May, 1992), pp. 197- 200+203-205

Zaslaw, Neal. Mozart's Paris Symphonies.  The Musical Times, Vol. 119, No. 1627 (Sep., 1978), pp. 753-757

Zeiss, Laurel Elizabeth. Permeable Boundaries in Mozart's 'Don Giovanni.' Cambridge Opera Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2 (Jul., 2001), pp. 115-139

XIII. Journals

Acta Musicologia
American Musicological Society
Early Music
Musical Quarterly
Musical Review, The
Musicology, The Journal of
Royal Musical Association

XIV. Miscellaneous

Crabtree, Philip D. & Foster, Donald H. & Scott, Allen. Sourcebook for Research in Music. 2005.

Nelson, David. Vienna for the Music Lover: The Complete Guide to Vienna's Musical Sites and Performances Today. 2009.

Wignall, Harrison James. In Mozart's Footsteps: A Travel Guide For Music Lovers. 1991.

Last Updated: 11/6/14
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